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❗ Famous Founder of the ‘Modern Gay-Rights Movement’ Harry Hay, Mentor was a Jesuit Priest & Says Wearing a Mask is for Homosexuals

2020.10.21 07:16 EnGoodz ❗ Famous Founder of the ‘Modern Gay-Rights Movement’ Harry Hay, Mentor was a Jesuit Priest & Says Wearing a Mask is for Homosexuals

Devout Roman Catholic, O.T.O Member, Liberation Theologian, & Famous Founder of the ‘Modern Gay-Rights Movement’ Harry Hay, Most Serious Mentor was a Jesuit Priest & Said Wearing a Mask is for Homosexual Occultists Practicing Communism

“After approximately ten years in South Africa, Big Harry set his sights on Margaret Neall at the formal dances, lawn tennis, and similar social occasions sponsored by the Martha Washington Club for American women in South Africa. Few stories of their courtship survive, save that Margaret’s parents disapproved; there was a seventeen-year age difference between the couple, and Hay was not Catholic. They may have also worried that despite his already accumulated riches, the demanding life of the ambitious, 42-year-old man would be taxing to whomever he married. In fact, he had just been offered the job of opening new gold mines in the uncolonized district of Tarkwa in the Gold Coast. But Margaret knew her own mind and was herself ambitious. Her military family had been genteel but never affluent, and when the handsome, wealthy man proposed, she accepted. As part of the arrangement, Big Harry converted to Catholicism and agreed that any children would be raised in the Catholic Church.”

“Harry’s most serious Mentor was a Jesuit Priest who invited him for weekly tutoring sessions on Philosophy and Religion, hoping (unsuccessfully) to persuade young Harry to take the cloth.”

“When in later years he told this favorite coming-out story, he referred to it ironically as his ‘child molestation speech,’ to make the point of how sharply gay life differs from heterosexual norms. ‘As a child,’ he explained, ‘I molested an adult until I found out what I needed to know.’ He recalled that Matt’s promise of a new world and a future served as a life raft during the isolated period of high school. Far from being an experience of ‘molestation,’ Harry always described it as ‘the most beautiful gift that a fourteen-year-old ever got from his first love!’ The following year, a rapidly maturing Harry broke with the Catholic Church. Like his father, he was not particularly Religious to begin with, but he attended Mass regularly at St. Gregory’s [Roman Catholic Jesuit controlled St. Gregory Nazi-anzen Church Bronson Ave, Los Angeles], at Ninth Street and Norton, to perform his bass solos in the choir. ‘When the soprano was absent, I could use my counter-tenor high head-tones to sing her part. Since the Congregation sat in front of us, nobody noticed that it was me. For the same reason, they didn’t notice when I slipped under the seats with the nice-looking tenor, George, and kissed during mass.’ The Saturday afternoon before Easter [Babylonian child orgy and sacrifice Feast of Ishtar, nowhere found in the Bible, Constantine replaced the Feast of Passover for it] of that year he waited, with many of the other Parishioners of St. Gregory’s, to endure the twice-yearly Confession. ‘Almost everyone in the Congregation was there,’ he recalled, as the Priest, Father Follen, took the Confessions one by one. When it was Harry’s turn, he made his confession, but ‘instead of telling me a penance, Father Follen asked, ‘And now, my son, have you thoroughly searched your soul and confessed to God all the sins you have committed for which you are truly repentant?’ I said yes, I was finished. It did fleetingly cross my mind about George and me, but already I was thinking that this was something that was not a sin, and was not wrong, and was beautiful, and some day I would find the words to tell people. So I said nothing more. ‘Suddenly, there was an abrupt drop in the temperature. I could feel it through the screen. His voice came back very low and very cold, and he gruffly repeated, ‘Have you finished?’ I said, ‘Yes.’ ‘You have not!’ he said. I realized in that instant that Father Follen knew who I was, which he was not supposed to—and that George had talked. ‘Are you going to say you are sorry?’ he asked. I wasn’t sorry, and there was nothing for me to confess. There was a moment of strained silence as he waited, then I heard him putting on his vestments. Before I knew what was happening, he reached into my side of the Confessional, grabbed me by the collar and by the back of the belt, and, in front of all those waiting people, marched me to the front of the Cathedral, kicked open the door with his foot, and pushed me out, shouting, ‘Don’t come back until you are ready to say you’re sorry.’ Harry never did. But when, during the Depression, he visited home from College, he sometimes went to St. Gregory’s, not as a Parishioner, but as a Musician, to play an occasional Mass. ‘From the pulpit, Father Fallon would thank me for the music, and then invite me to the Sacristy, where we would finish off the Sacramental wine. Then the old hypocrite would chase me around the table. But I never let him catch me. I was very wise by then.”

“Sometimes the kids from the Filth and Famine League would go hear Harry play the organ for the Los Angeles Lodge of the Order of the Eastern Temple, or O.T.O., [Jesuit Priest, see website for citations] Aleister Crowley’s notorious anti-Christian [pro-Catholic] Spiritual Group. Based on the [Jesuit created and controlled, see my website for citations] Order of the Golden Dawn, a Secret-Society concerned with the use of ritual sex in magic, Crowley’s Society was not so secret and was known to have created homosexual sex-magic rituals. The O.T.O. motto, [Jesuit Casuistry] ‘Do What Thou Wilt Shall Be the Whole of the Law,’ inspired the name of its mother Church, the Abbey of Thelema, which in Greek means ‘will.’ The original Abbey was in [Roman Catholic, Jesuit controlled] Sicily, but the Los Angeles chapter also called their meeting place Thelema, although the smallish quarters were in the attic of a four-story house in Hollywood. Regina Kahl, with whom Harry had acted, was high priestess of O.T.O., and she hired Harry to play the organ at Services. In keeping with the times, no one was openly gay, but the Lodge was run by a frail man named Wilfred Smith, who often performed ‘Exorcisms’ on attractive young men. Kahl, whom Harry described as ‘the biggest lez you ever saw,’ and two older women known as the Wolfe sisters were Priestesses. The Wolfe sisters wistfully hinted that sex-magic rituals would be nice if enough people ever joined the Los Angeles Temple—but enough never did. When the services were to start, remembered Harry, ‘a gong sounded and we’d get to the Chapel by ladder. The Congregation sat in pews facing a sarcophagus behind a gauze curtain. Regina, in a flowing robe, slit the veil with a sword and out came Wilfred wearing a snake diadem and a red velvet cape velvet cape made from a theater curtain. ‘I am a man among men,’ he would say. Then, taking Regina, who towered above him, he’d say, ‘Come thou virgin, pure and without spot.’ Many visitors had trouble keeping a straight face. Harry mischievously slipped ‘Barnacle Bill the Sailor’ or ‘Yes, We Have No Bananas!’ slowed to dirge tempo, into the contrapuntal themes he was hired to play. Frequently, he dropped into his [non] former Catholic Church to play a Mass earlier in the day just to balance his Sacrilege.”

“The simple fact of being in New York made even everyday events take on a more vivid quality. ‘Every Sunday there was a parade somewhere or other,’ Harry recalled, ‘parades for various Saints of the Catholic Church, for local candidates, for the neighborhood Junior High School. If we wanted to have a parade that was important to the Left, we’d have to check with the Junior High first.’ The Hays frequented parades.”

“John Lyon Burnside III had already met Harry at Gerald Heard’s house … Burnside’s background was respectable; … winding up as a staff Scientist at [Jesuit created and controlled, see website for citations] Lockheed. … Burnside was at once an attentive listener and as discursive as Harry, the perfect partner for Harry’s ongoing dialogues about gays. Though John arrived a nerve-racking three hours late to their first date, they postponed the chef ’s salad Harry had prepared for another five hours, which they spent in bed. They fell for each other at every level, as they found out how much they had in common. Burnside was also a westerner, from Seattle. Both were [non] lapsed Catholics, were close in age (Burnside was forty-seven; Harry fifty-one) and had weathered long Heterosexual marriages.”

“Harry got to know every Indian dance, every festival time, and the best route to every Catholic Cathedral and windowless Church of the Penitente Catholics. [Literally creating and performing the Roman Catholic black-magic Eucharist for his homosexual sex-magic rituals—that is to say—Roman Catholicism.] He baked his own recipe of high nutrition bread for the gay waifs who came for showers, dried apple chips when there was a bumper crop, and made wine from currants, pears and plums.”
—Stuart Timmons (Homosexual Idolater Author of Harry Hay); ‘The Trouble with Harry Hay: Founder of the Modern Gay Movement,’ pp. 24-25, 48, 54-55, 97-98, 134, 245-246, 247, (Boston: 1990) [Emphasis Mine]
His Jesuit mentor was beyond a doubt absolutely successful in his mission commanded to him by his Jesuit Superior.

From a May, 1951 interview with Jesuit Spiritual Coadjutor, Harry Hay; wearing a mask is for homosexual occultists practicing Communism (Jesuit created Ecumenical Liberation Theology)—:
“One masque group was known as the ‘Société Mattachine.’ These Societies, lifelong Secret Fraternities of unmarried townsmen who never performed in public unmasked, were dedicated to going out into the countryside and conducting dances and rituals during the [Roman Catholic Saturnalia (Azaz’el)] Feast of Fools, at the Vernal Equinox. Sometimes these dance rituals, or masques, were peasant protests against oppression—with the maskers, in the people's name, receiving the brunt of a given lord's vicious retaliation. So we took the name Mattachine because we felt that we 1950s Gays were also a masked people, unknown and anonymous, who might become engaged in morale building and helping ourselves and others, through struggle, to move toward total redress and change.” —Henry Hay (May, 1951)
—Jonathan Katz; ‘Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A,’ p. 620-622, (New York: 1978) [Emphasis Mine]

Team Resources:
Johnny Cirucci:
Eric Bowman:
Doc Felipe:
En Goodz:

❤️ Yahusha is Ha'Mashiach, the Yachid of Yahuah, who is Elohiym and 'Echad
If you shall confess with your mouth Adonai Yahusha, and shall believe in your heart that Yah has raised him from the dead, you shall be saved.
🇻🇦 T H E ⦁ W H O R E ⦁ O F ⦁ B A B E L ⦁ I S ⦁ R O M E
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2020.09.28 18:35 GuyOnTheMike American Association Alums in the MLB Playoffs

During the 2020 season, a dozen former American Association players suited up for an MLB team, and several of those are on teams that are off to the postseason.
Let's take a look at what these men did in the AA and what they've done at the sport's highest level this season:
John Brebbia, 2014 Sioux Falls Canaries, 2015 Laredo Lemurs
In the MLB: This one sort-of counts, because he missed the 2020 season due to injury, but he was expected to be a key part of the St. Louis Cardinals bullpen this year, so he'll get a pass. In three years with the Cardinals, he's posted a very fine 3.14 ERA, while striking out 198 batters over 175.0 innings in 161 games.
In the AA: He joined the Sioux Falls Canaries in 2014 after three years in the New York Yankees system. With the Birds, he went 3-2 with a 3.31 ERA in 34 games (5 starts), with 76 strikeouts in 65.1 innings. In 2015, he moved on to the Laredo Lemurs, where he posted one of the best reliever seasons in league history (sorry, Peyton Gray). Brebbia went 7-2 with a 0.97 ERA in 51 games, earning 19 saves and striking out 79 over 64.1 innings.
In the 2015 postseason, he threw 13.1 shutout innings over six games, earning five saves. In the semifinals against the Wichita Wingnuts, Brebbia threw 4.0 shutout innings in the clincher, retiring all 12 men he faced to earn the save. In the AA Finals, Brebbia helped the Lemurs upset the 75-25 Sioux City Explorers, throwing 2.2 shutout innings to close out the X's and earn the Lemurs their lone title.
Oddly enough, before the AA Finals, he was signed by the Arizona Diamondbacks (the transaction date given was September 15, the date of his last AA game, September 20), and he was subsequently claimed in the Rule 5 Draft by St. Louis that December, where he's remained ever since.
James Hoyt, 2012 Wichita Wingnuts
In the MLB: Hoyt was sold by the Cleveland Indians to the Miami Marlins on August 2 after the Marlins had to turn over half their roster following their COVID-19 outbreak in the first weekend of the season. That paid off handsomely as Hoyt went 2-0 with a 1.23 ERA over 24 games out of the bullpen, striking out 20 batters in 14.2 innings.
Hoyt had previously pitched for the Houston Astros from 2016-18 and the Cleveland Indians in 2019. For his career he is 4-1 with a 3.71 ERA in 98 relief appearances.
In the AA: After going undrafted out of Palomar College, Hoyt pitched in the now-defunct North American League before joining the Wichita Wingnuts early in the 2012 season. After just two appearances, he was sold to the Olmecas de Tabasco of the Mexican League, where he pitched for a little over a month, going 0-2 with a 2.03 ERA in 11 games, but nonetheless returned to Wichita by season's end.
With the Wingnuts, he went 2-0 with a 2.61 ERA with one save in 11 games, striking out 15 over 10.1 innings pitched, plus three scoreless appearances in the playoffs, which saw Wichita fall in the finals to the Winnipeg Goldeyes. On November 15, 2012, his contract was purchased by the Atlanta Braves. He was eventually traded to the Astros in a 2015 deal that sent Evan Gattis to Houston and Mike Foltynewicz to Atlanta, before debuting in 2016.
Brandon Kintzler, 2009 St. Paul Saints
In the MLB: Kintzler signed with the Miami Marlins in February and once again was excellent out of the bullpen, serving as the Marlins' closer and going 2-3 with a 2.22 ERA, earning 12 saves in 24 appearances. Over 11 seasons in the majors, Kintzler has appeared in 454 career games with five different teams, going 22-23 with a 3.31 ERA and 61 saves.
In the AA: After two seasons in the San Diego Padres system (after being a 40th round pick), Kintzler was released after the 2005 campaign. After missing the 2006 season, he resurfaced with the Winnipeg Goldeyes of the Northern League (RIP) in 2007, spending two seasons as a so-so starter for them, going a combined 13-8 with a 4.41 ERA with the Fish.
With his career hanging by a thread, he moved to the St. Paul Saints (in the AA) for the 2009 campaign, where things clicked. He went 8-3 with a 2.79 ERA before his contract was purchased by the Milwaukee Brewers on July 22 of that year. After finishing the year in Double-A, Kintzler moved permanently to the bullpen in 2010, and made his MLB debut later that season.
Chris Martin, 2010 Grand Prairie AirHogs
In the MLB: Martin suffered a groin injury in Sunday's season finale, putting a damper on his best MLB season, one that saw him go 1-1 with a 1.00 ERA in 19 appearances out of the bullpen for the Atlanta Braves. He struck out 20 and walked just three batters over 18.0 innings. For his career, which dates back to 2014 and has spanned four teams, he is 3-11 with a 4.09 ERA over 163 games, fanning 154 batters over 151.2 innings.
In the AA: Martin was kind of an odd case, being drafted out of JuCo in the 21st round in 2005 by the Colorado Rockies (and not signing), but there's no evidence he played professionally anywhere until 2010, when at 24 years old, he surfaced with the Grand Prairie AirHogs. Despite not pitching until July 17 that year, he went 4-0 with a 1.96 ERA in 13 appearances (four starts), striking out 36 batters over 36.2 innings.
On March 31, 2011, he signed with the Boston Red Sox, spending three years in their system before being traded in the winter of 2013 to the Colorado Rockies, where he eventually made his big league debut less than a month before his 28th birthday in 2014.
Tyler Matzek, 2018-19 Texas AirHogs
In the MLB: Matzek has had one of the most interesting journeys. This year, he went 4-3 with a 2.79 ERA out of the Atlanta Braves bullpen, striking out 43 in just 29.0 innings. However, that was his first MLB action in five years. In 2014-15, he had a promising start to his career, going a combined 8-12 with the Colorado Rockies with a very respectable (for them) 4.06 ERA. In his career, he is 12-15 with a 3.84 ERA over 46 appearances (24 starts), striking out 149 in 168.2 innings.
In the AA: His route to the AA involved being drafted 11th overall by the Rockies in 2009 out of high school--14 spots ahead of Mike Trout. He was twice a top-40 prospect by Baseball America, but struggled at times with his control. Despite this, he showed promise after reaching the majors in 2014, but washed out due to injuries and full-blown Steve Blass Disease, being released following the 2016 season.
After being released in spring training by the Chicago White Sox (in 2017) and Seattle Mariners (in 2018), he wound up with the Texas AirHogs in 2018, having a horrid season for a horrid team, going 3-8 with a 5.88 ERA and walking 66 batters in 88.2 innings for a 25-75 AirHogs squad. Nonetheless, he signed a minor league deal with the Arizona Diamondbacks that winter, but by early 2019, he was back with the AirHogs.
However, in his second year in Texas, he moved to the bullpen, going 5-4 with a 2.64 ERA in 22 games, striking out 53 batters in just 30.2 innings, throwing 12 straight scoreless outings before being signed by the Braves on August 15. After a handful of minor league outings to finish the 2019 season, Matzek then made the 2020 Opening Day roster, completing a successful comeback to the big leagues.
James Paxton, 2010 Grand Prairie AirHogs
In the MLB: Paxton had a dud of a 2020 season for the New York Yankees, going 1-1 with a 6.64 ERA before a flexor strain ended his season. However, despite injuries never allowing him to throw more than 160 innings, he's had a successful MLB career between the Yankees and Seattle Mariners, going 57-33 with a 3.58 ERA over eight years, including a no-hitter on May 8 2018.
In the AA: "Big Maple" was drafted 39th overall by the Toronto Blue Jays in the 2009 MLB Draft, but despite being Canadian, he did not sign, and was ruled ineligible to return to college, due to the fact that he had signed with an agent (Scott Boras). That led him to the Grand Prairie AirHogs in 2010, where he made four starts, going 1-2 with a 4.07 ERA, striking out 18 in 17.2 innings.
Understandably, his draft stock slipped, as Seattle drafted him in the fourth round in 2010. However, Paxton signed this time and he made his big league debut late in the 2013 season.
Chaz Roe, 2012 Laredo Lemurs
In the MLB: Roe's 2020 season was cut short by an elbow injury, but he posted a 2-0 record with a 2.89 ERA over 10 appearances before going on the shelf. In his career, Roe has bounced around five teams, but has been a consistent piece in the Tampa Bay bullpen for the past three seasons, appearing in 71 games in 2019. For his career, he is 11-8 with a 3.82 ERA over 244 games, striking out 243 over 216.2 innings.
In the AA: Roe was drafted 32nd overall in the loaded 2005 MLB Draft by the Seattle Mariners. He reached the majors in September, 2010, but did not appear in a big league game that year. After a rocky 2011 season in Triple-A, he was released and wound up in Laredo, where he was lights out for the 2012 Lemurs, going 3-2 with a 1.47 ERA in 49 games, striking out 69 batters in 55.0 innings, not allowing an earned run in his final 17 appearances.
Eight days after his final appearance in Laredo, he was signed by the Arizona Diamondbacks on September 15, 2012 and made his big league debut the following season.
Caleb Thielbar, 2011, 2016-17 St. Paul Saints
In the MLB: Thielbar made it back to the majors for the first time in 2015 with the team he debuted with, the Minnesota Twins. The Minnesota native dazzled for his hometown team, going 2-1 with a 2.25 ERA in 17 games out of the bullpen, striking out 22 batters in 20.0 innings. Over his four years with the Twins, he's gone 7-4 with a 2.65 ERA, striking out 101 in 118.2 innings over 126 appearances.
In the AA: A truly unique case, Thielbar may be the only player to go from Indy ball to the majors twice. After being drafted in the 18th round by the Milwaukee Brewers in 2009, he was released less than two years later. He wound up in St. Paul in 2011, going 3-3 with a 2.53 ERA in 43 games, striking out 62 in 49.2 innings. On August 19, he was purchased by the Minnesota Twins.
By 2013, Thielbar was in the majors and a valuable weapon in the Minnesota bullpen, but in 2015, he was demoted to Triple-A and despite excellent numbers there, he was waived, claimed by the San Diego Padres, posted most excellent numbers in the minors, but was released. Finally, the Miami Marlins signed, then released him late in Spring Training in 2016.
So, in 2016, Thielbar was back in St. Paul, going 5-2 with a 2.39 ERA in 42 games, striking out 56 in 64.0 innings. He returned to the Saints in 2017, going 2-1 with a 2.01 ERA in 17 games, fanning 23 in 22.1 innings. Finally, he signed with the Detroit Tigers in the winter of 2017.
Despite two strong seasons in Triple-A for the Tigers, he never earned the call to the bigs, and after a brief stint in the minors with the Atlanta Braves late in the 2019 season, Thielbar was signed by the Twins in the winter of 2019 and finally made it back in 2020.
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2020.09.21 20:18 ammodotcom Early American Militias: The Forgotten History of Freedmen Militias from 1776 until the Civil War


https://preview.redd.it/zwpt4r0yljo51.jpg?width=400&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=9e3f2441641ecd57659dc4b6f748fb2d622657c1
The United States militia is enshrined in the Second Amendment of the Constitution. And while the militia movement of today is widely known, its history – and the history of independent Constitutional militias stretching back to the dawn of the republic – is far less well known.
Why does this matter nowadays? Because understanding the historical roots of America's militias helps modern-day members appreciate the role they play in our federal system of government. Because since inception, militias have been tasked with stopping those who hold public office from exceeding their authority or those seeking to enact legislation outside of their operating charter – a crucial check against incremental encroachment by the state, as James Madison wrote in the Federalist Papers on January 29, 1788:
"Besides the advantage of being armed, which the Americans possess over the people of almost every other nation, the existence of subordinate governments, to which the people are attached, and by which the militia officers are appointed, forms a barrier against the enterprises of ambition, more insurmountable than any which a simple government of any form can admit of."
The militia is the final means of recourse in this cycle of self-government – and arguably the most important. Thus this is the first in a two-part historical series on America's militias. The second part, American Militias after the Civil War: From Black Codes to the Black Panthers and Beyond, looks at additional changes this American institution underwent from Reconstruction onwards.
The Colonial Origins of the United States Militia
The vision of an American militia goes back even before the United States Constitution or the founding of the United States. In most states in colonial America, all able-bodied men were considered to be part of the militia – through which the individual towns and cities would provide for the common defense.
A militia is explicitly mentioned in the United States Constitution, prior to the Bill of Rights. Article I, Section 8, drafted around the same time as the founding of the Springfield Armory (ground zero for American ammunition manufacturing), mentions it three times alone:
• To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;
• To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
• Article II, Section 2 designates the President of the United States as the “Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States.”
While the 1903 Militia Act is a relatively recent innovation to the world of the American militia, it is worth referencing, even if briefly, as we dive into our long history. The Militia Act of 1903 separates the militia into two groups:
• Organized Militia: These are the forces that comprise the National Guard, which are the organized militia forces of each state. It is not synonymous with the National Guard of the United States, which is a reserve military force under joint control of the federal and state governments.
• Unorganized Militia: This is virtually every other man in the United States. Men are not part of the unorganized militia if they are part of the organized militia. All other able-bodied men between the ages of 17 and 45 are considered part of the militia. This is an important concept to remember, even as we work through the part of militia history predating this Act.
In the pre-1903 Militia Act era, the line between the two is not so clearly defined. Many of the militias discussed below are organized and subject to statute, but not “organized” in the sense that they have official membership rolls, uniforms, or even significant involvement from their respective state and territorial governments. Much like the later independent or “Constitutional militia” movement, there is a rank, structure and a chain of command, but the organization is not necessarily subject to government oversight – other than having to comply with all relevant statutes. In the case of the militias of the Revolutionary War period, this is very fuzzy.
The militia is an outgrowth of an English common law institution. The word itself dates back to 1590. Originally, the word simply meant soldiers in the service of the state. By the mid-17th Century, however, it had taken on connotations of a civilian military force. It carried additional connotations in terms of a military raised in temporary service to respond to some kind of an emergency.
The early militias, on both sides of the Atlantic, served the purpose of both security and defense. These were particularly important in the New World, where attacks from hostile Indian tribes were a constant threat. Indeed, these militias played a key role in the French and Indian Wars, including the primary one taking place concurrently with the Seven Years War between the years 1754 and 1763.
During these periods, militias organized by towns were also the pool from which the Provincial Forces were drafted. This was, in fact, a rare occurrence. The Provincial Forces were one of the best-paying wage labor opportunities available to American colonists, so their ranks were rarely short.
While the Provincial Forces were very professional and disciplined, the militias were not. Indeed, no less an authority than George Washington (at that time the adjutant-general of the Virginia militia) noted that the militia was largely disorganized. He considered the militia fit for times of peace, but ill-equipped for times of war. Even during peace, the bulk of the colonial military were what are today Army Rangers – well paid, professional, highly disciplined, and accomplished.
Militias During the American Revolution
The militias, however, played a central role in the American Revolution. The famous “Minutemen” – figures as iconic as the cowboy in American mythology – are, in fact, personifications and embodiments of the militia as it existed during the time of the American Revolution.
The history of the American militia cannot be discussed without talking about the Minutemen. These were effectively partisans in the war against the British, for which there is a subtle irony: The Minutemen harked back to the earliest traditions of the English countryside militia – ready on a moment’s notice.
Indeed, the militia is perhaps the British institution that most shaped the United States and its culture.
The British did not represent the entire militia, but the most disciplined and committed elements of it. They were, as the name implies, ready to go at a minute’s notice. They represented approximately a quarter of the entire force, and skewed toward the younger and more radical members of the revolutionary movement.
The roots of the Minutemen (and of the militia in general) lie in the old British colonial militia. In the Massachusetts Bay Colony, all able-bodied men between the ages of 16 and 60 were obligated to serve in the militia. By 1645, possibly earlier, there were men selected specially for rapid deployment segments of the militia, known as “training bands.” The term “Minutemen” was even used during this period. These were organized on a town-by-town basis, with some towns, notably Lexington, not having special rapid response units.
During this period, Minutemen could not be over 30 years old. Officers were elected by rank and file, as was generally common throughout the colonial militias. Fowling pieces were the most common weapon. Uniforms were nonexistent, with hunting gear being the most common form of clothing. The French and Indian War provided the irregular forces with training in proto-guerilla warfare that European troops were not familiar with.
On the eve of the Revolutionary War, the Minutemen became something distinct from the rest of the militia, not simply its most committed segment. The Powder Alarm of 1774 underscored the need for a sleeker, more committed and more rapidly responding segment of the militia – the regular militia simply did not deploy quickly enough to prevent the British military from seizing materiel from the local ammunition stores and armories.
The British feared the power of the militias and the Minutemen prior to the Revolution. One of the strategic aims of the Intolerable Acts was to significantly decrease the power of town government. When General Thomas Gage, Governor of Massachusetts under the Intolerable Acts, attempted to seat his hand-picked court in Worcester, 2,000 militiamen prevented him from doing so. In response, Gage set out to confiscate provincial munitions. The militia responded in kind by assembling 4,000 men to the Cambridge common.
From the very beginning of the revolution, the militias played a pivotal role, despite the fact that they were of limited utility. The Battles of Lexington and Concord started as a confrontation between the local militias and the colonial authorities. On April 19, 1775, 800 British troops marched out of Boston to Concord. They were unable to locate their target, the colonists’ arms and ammunition, which they were to confiscate. It was at 5 a.m. that they encountered 70 militiamen in Concord. They ordered the militiamen to disperse, but the militiamen refused. This is what led to “the shot heard round the world,” but to this day historians are unsure who fired first.
While the militias themselves were primarily used for disrupting supply lines and harrassing, skirmishing type attacks, many of the senior officers were those who had cut their teeth bush fighting during the French and Indian Wars. On the other hand, the British senior officers had no experience with this kind of fighting and had to learn it on the fly.
On their way back to the city after being unable to find the arms and ammunition, the British were stalked and sniped by militiamen. The company was routed, and 900 additional troops were required to save them from the clandestine attacks of the Patriot militias.
Throughout the Revolutionary War, the Minutemen model increasingly became the standard for irregular militia fighters. This provided the Continental Army with swelled numbers on short notice. While the Minutemen weren’t known as great marksmen, the psychological impact and distraction of their presence certainly helped win the Patriots’ cause. Scores of militias were culled from each of the newly independent 13 states, as well as Vermont, which was at that time its own independent republic and not one of the United States.
While the revolutionary fervor was felt most strongly in the militias at the beginning of the war, this waned over time. After all, the Revolutionary War lasted eight years – a long time to maintain that level of enthusiasm. The militias elected their own officers and often used this to ensure that they would not have to serve outside of their home state. Often times, militia members hired replacements, and in extreme cases, exorbitant bribes were required to get the men to perform their militia duties. The currency became inflated over the course of the war, requiring land grants and promises of slaves at the war’s end.
The militia was a hugely popular public institution at the end of the Revolutionary War. It was seen as the national defense of a free people, as opposed to a standing army. Most experts, however, did not feel that the militia had much in the way of actual military value in the event of a foreign invasion. Still, figures like George Washington were forced to support the militia publicly, while speaking of its limitations more privately.
Continue reading Early American Militias: The Forgotten History of Freedmen Militias from 1776 until the Civil War at Ammo.com.
submitted by ammodotcom to Militia [link] [comments]


2020.09.17 20:07 Rumored17 Refutations for Every Main Pro-Pit Argument

1."It's all how you raise them."

And more:
• ⁠Lockwood, R. A. N. D. A. L. L. (2016). Ethology, ecology and epidemiology of canine aggression. The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behaviour & Interactions with People,, 160-181.
• ⁠Abrantes, R., Site, A., Camp, S., Diving, F. A. Q., Camp, G. P., Pages, M., ... & User, C. C. (2016). Aggressive Behavior—Inheritance and Environment.
• ⁠van den Berg, L. I. N. D. A. (2016). Genetics of dog behavior. The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behavior and Interactions with People, 5, 69.
• ⁠O'Neill, D. G., & Packer, R. M. (2016). The First Canine Behavior and Genetics Conference: Summary and recommendations for future directions in canine behavioral science. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 16, 6-12.
• ⁠Sørensen, M. (2016). Breeding aggression: Review of recent literature concerning the influence of genes on aggressive behaviour (Doctoral dissertation).
• ⁠Schilder, M. B., van der Borg, J. A., & Vinke, C. M. (2019). Intraspecific killing in dogs: predation behavior or aggression? A study of aggressors, victims, possible causes and motivations. Journal of Veterinary Behavior.
These studies all show that genetics play a large role in dog behavior. Most are related to Pit Bulls or aggression, but some just show that there are noticeable differences between dog breeds based on their breed. Here are some anecdotal sources to support the claims that Pit Bulls are born with a tendency to be aggressive:
In addition, "it's all how you raise them" goes against the very existence of dog breeds. If someone is arguing this, they are saying a Labrador Retriever will have the same instincts as a Border Collie, which will have the same instincts as a Doberman, which will have the same instincts as a Great Pyrenees, which will have the same instincts as a Dachshund, etc. This is observably and demonstrably false. Humans created different dog breeds with different temperaments and physical and behavioral traits through selective breeding. This is why dog breeds exist, this is why breed standards exist, this is why people can reasonably and accurately predict how a dog will act based on breed. Are there exceptions? Of course. However, that is just what they are- exceptions. Different dog breeds have different traits and tendencies dependent on what they were selectively bred for.

2. "Chihuahuas are more aggressive."

This is just a disingenuous attempt to derail the conversation. Even if Chihuahuas are more aggressive, they don't/can't kill people. If Chihuahuas were as large as Pit Bulls, perhaps this would be a conversation worth having- seeing as this is not the case, there is no argument to be had here.
I try to emphasize that the issue with Pits is how many people and pets they kill. Pit Bulls are not just biting people- they are killing, severely maiming, and mauling people. There is a huge difference, and it is important to recognize many Pit fanatics will try to lump in all dog bites with the maulings Pit Bulls are responsible for. They are not the same. This is similar to the "Labs bite more" argument- again, we are not just talking about bites. Keep the discussion focused on severe maulings, maimings, and deaths, because that is what BSL targets.
From 1982-2020 no Chihuahua has ever killed anyone. This source breaks down attacks by breed, child or adult victim, and death or maiming.

3. "There's no such thing as a Pit Bull." and "Pit Bulls can't be identified."

A good way to avoid even getting to this apologist bingo point is by using the phrasing "Pit Bull type dogs" as opposed to Pit Bulls. However, you can also just explain that "Pit Bull" is an umbrella term for four closely related dog breeds- the American Pit Bull Terrier, the American Staffordshire Terrier, the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, and the American Bully. The American Pit Bull Terrier and the American Staffordshire Terrier are actually so similar they can be dual registered as an AmStaff with the AKC and a APBT with the UKC. Until recently, most dog DNA tests would not even separate AmStaff from APBT due to the extreme similarities. This is also just another deflection technique- everyone knows what someone means by "Pit Bull" just as everyone knows what someone means by "Golden Retriever." This is what "pit bull" means legally.
Now, because "Pit Bull" does refer to 4 dog breeds rather than one, Pit apologists will often cry "well of course 4 dog breeds will kill more people!" but keep in mind that these 4 dog breeds have killed more people than 300+ other dog breeds combined. The Pit Bull umbrella kills more people than every other group or type of dogs and more than every other dog breed combined.
Regarding Pit Bulls being unidentifiable:
Pit Bulls have just as many obvious identifying characteristics as other dog breeds. There is no reason to believe Pit Bulls suffer from misidentification more than other dog breeds. There is reason to believe Pit Bulls are intentionally mislabeled as other breeds when in shelters, however. In addition, when discussing fatal Pit Bull attacks specifically, more often than not there are photos of the Pit Bulls involved so anyone can verify for themselves if they were Pit Bull type dogs. Genetic testing is not required for breed identification- anyone who argues this is being disingenuous. Another point is that we are constantly inundated with Pro-Pit propaganda; there is simply no way we can have Pixar shorts such as Kitbull and a new Dodo video every week about Pit Bulls and still be expected to believe the average person cannot visually identify a Pit Bull.

4. "Pits are no more dangerous than other dogs."

The statistics also support our side here- Pit Bulls have killed more people than all other dog breeds combined. Pit Bulls are not the largest, nor the strongest dogs out there. They do not have the strongest bite force. They are more deadly than other dog breeds because humans selectively bred them to be as deadly as possible. They are deadly due to the nature of their attacks and the behavioral traits they display when attacking such as gameness and a bite style mentioned in some of these studies, along with their physical traits.

5. "It used to be Dobermans, Rottweilers, and German Shepherds that people wanted to ban!"

Pit Bulls have killed more people than those three breeds ever did, even at the height of their popularity, even combined. There is also no evidence supporting this claim, and in fact, quite a lot of evidence showing it's completely false.
It is important to note as well that none of these breeds have an entire lobby supporting them. They do not have communities dedicated to attack victim harassment, misinformation, and lies, unlike the Pit Bull has. Something interesting to consider is the bias online when looking at these breeds and other restricted breeds vs pages about Pit Bulls. Wikipedia in particular is very obviously being manipulated by Pit Bull fanatics.
None of this manipulation is occurring on the pages for Dobermans, Rottweilers, or German Shepherds. These three breeds never reached anywhere close to the level of suffering and carnage Pit Bulls are responsible for. There has never been a concerted effort to ban these breeds, although some are targeted by apartment restrictions due to insurance issues. There is also no lobby supporting the misinformation and misrepresentation of these breeds.

6. "Dogsbite.org is biased and unreliable."

Dogsbite is completely open and transparent about their data collection strategies. They provide identification photographs and have all of their citations publicly listed. Citations and Photographs
Here is a challenge I like to give to people who claim Dogsbite is unreliable, although I have yet to receive a legitimate response:
Have you actually looked into dogsbite.org yourself? You do know that dogsbite tracks every fatal dog attack, regardless if it's a Pit or not? It appears anti-Pit because most fatal dog attacks are done by Pits. They're not only posting Pit attacks- there are just so many more fatal Pit attacks than other breeds it appears they are. Here's a proposal for you: Go to 2020 and late 2019, a time frame for which news reports are still abundantly available all over the internet, and fact-check ANY FOUR DOG-BITE FATALITIES OF YOUR CHOOSING, two where the killer dogs are said to be pit/mixes, and two cases where the killer dogs are not said to be pit/mixes:
  1. Did DogsBite accurately name the person killed?
  2. Did DogsBite accurately summarize the circumstances in which the person was killed?
  3. Did DogsBite accurately identify the breed(s) of the killer dog(s)?
  4. Did DogsBite provide a photo or photos of the killer dog(s) so you can judge for yourself what type of dog(s) you think did the killing?
DogsBite and Wikipedia both provide links to news stories about these fatal attacks. If you don't want to use the news links provided by DogsBite, then use the ones on Wikipedia that cover the same stories. DogsBite also provides links to autopsy reports, police reports and 911 calls, so you can compare these primary sources with the summaries on the DogsBite page and assess whether those summaries are accurate.

7. "Human aggressive Pit Bulls were culled!"

This is a myth. While human aggression was not something that was typically selectively bred for it is a myth that most human aggressive Pits were culled. That was not the case, and it still is not the case today. One look at shelter descriptions of Pits with bite histories and severe aggression issues shows these dogs are not being euthanized, and there are several instances of Pit Bulls who have killed people being bred.
There's no evidence whatsoever that dog fighters routinely destroyed human-aggressive dogs and refused to breed them. u/NorthTwoZero wrote at length about why it's a myth here, and this blogger put together a documented list of famously human-aggressive fighting dogs who not only weren't "culled" but were bred so often that they produced over 1,200 known, registered offspring:
"The man-biters were culled and the pit bulls were not bred for human aggression myths were created from thin air, complete fabrications. There is not a sliver of truth in the myth that dogmen culled man-biters. Not only weren't human aggressive pit fighters NOT culled, but a talented man-biter was heavily bred, his stud services were in high demand and the stud fees commanded a premium. The progeny of man-biters are still sought out long after he or she has passed away. This Italian game-dog website lists their choice for the Best Ever fighting dogs, three of the five are known man-biters and the other two trace their origins to the others on their "Best" list. Some famous man-biters have their own facebook fan pages. If you happen to be a 10x winner with 3 kills and scratching on the carcass, people tend to overlook a little thing like the danger she poses to people and she is also likely to be nominated for the cover of this month's International Sporting Dog Journal. Some famous man-biters not only have a facebook fan page, they have their own promotional merchandise too."

8. "Pit Bulls were nanny dogs!" or "Pit Bulls were America's dog!"

First, I usually ask questions that demonstrate out how absurd that claim is. What is a nanny dog? What duties does a nanny dog perform? Why would a dog type be called a "Pit Bull" if it nannied? Where does the name "Pit Bull" come from? Why is it necessary for Pits to have such large, gaping mouths and extremely muscular bodies if they were nannies? Then here is some actual info:
The first appearance of the term "Nanny Dog" dates from a 1971 NYT interview with the then president of the Staffordshire Bull Terrier Club of America, Lillian Rant, who called Staffordshire Bull Terriers "nursemaid dogs" for no apparent reason (other than to attempt to re-brand fighting dogs as family pets).
BAD RAP shared a link. It's Dog Bite Prevention Week. Did you know that there was never such thing as a 'Nanny's Dog'? This term was a recent invention created to describe the myriad of vintage photos of children enjoying their family pit bulls (see link for details about vintage photos). While the intention behind the term was innocent, using it may mislead parents into being careless with their children around their family dog - A recipe for dog bites!
Regarding Pits being "America's dog": Bronwen Dickey (author of incredibly biased and unscientific book "Pit Bull: The Battle over an American Icon") and other pit bull advocates argue that pit bulls were historically beloved in the U.S. until the dogs became associated with urban people of color in the 1970s, so Pit Bull stigma is really about being racist toward black and brown people.
But pit bulls were not historically beloved in the U.S. nor were they popularly regarded as a positive symbol of plucky can-do spirit. Joseph Colby, in his lifetime one of the world's leading authorities on the Pit Bull Terrier, wrote in 1936 that "The general public is under the impression that this breed is carnivorous, vicious, and, fed on a diet of raw meat, will devour a human being" and "When the pit bull terrier was introduced into America, he was more commonly found to be owned by prize fighters, saloon keepers and habitues, sporting men and the like. From the start the breed earned an unjust reputation due to his fighting ability and the character of the owner. To this day he is still trying to live down an unjust and undeserved reputation."
Sometimes Pit people will randomly mention how Sergeant Stubby, a decorated war hero dog, was a Pit Bull. He was not. Primary (contemporary) sources most often describe Stubby as a Boston Terrier or Boston Terrier mix (this breed was sometimes called the Boston Bulldog). He is sometimes said to be a Bull Terrier (the egghead dogs) mix but he obviously resembles a Boston Terrier significantly more than a Bull Terrier. Stubby is never said to be a Pit Bull in primary sources.

9. "Pit Bulls scored 2nd highest on temperament tests and better than most family dog breeds!"

This is always referring to the ATTS, or the American Temperament Testing Society. It is refuted thoroughly in the BanPitBulls FAQ, but this is what I usually say as well:
The test was developed to test working dogs, specifically dogs meant for schutzhund work. It has never been, nor ever purported to be about testing companion animals or a breed's suitability as family pets. Scoring actually favors dogs that bite, in some cases. Breed specific temperament, aggression, and each dog's training is taken into account when scoring. This means that if a relatively untrained Lab bites a "threatening stranger" it will score far lower than a German Shepherd that bites a "threatening stranger." According to the ATTS itself, "95% of dogs who fail do so because they lack confidence" NOT because they bite. Dogs that exhibit avoidance behaviors will fail. Dogs that bite do not automatically fail. The ATTS also states that comparing scores with other dogs means nothing- the pass/fail rates cannot be compared. Different dog breeds that behave the same exact way on the test will get hugely different scores due to the fact they take inherent breed tendencies into consideration. The test is not designed to test for breed aggression, according to the ATTS website. It is more of a test of bravery for individual dogs. Timid dogs will always fail. Dogs that bite will not always fail. If anything, you could argue that the reason Pits have a high passing rate is because they bite or show aggression, although that is speculation and not proven. Either way though- the test does not test breed aggression, passing rates cannot be compared, and the test absolutely does not test for suitability as a family pet. More info here: What the ATTS is really showing.
It is also worth mentioning that the only dogs that participate in the ATTS testing are dogs brought in by their owners- it is not a random sample or scientific study of any kind. Considering the evidence showing the existence of an actual Pit Bull lobby, it would not be a reach to say these results have been intentionally manipulated (if they did even matter, which they don't).
Also, a controlled temperament test found that 13 percent, or one out of seven, pit bulls tried to bite or attack during a one hour test simulating a neighborhood walk. One out of seven pit bulls tried to bite in the span of just one hour compared to only one out of 70 golden retrievers. Note that this study was funded and authored by anti-breed ban activists: They found "no significant difference" between breeds when the definition of aggression was watered down to include even whining or crying. But pay close attention to Table 5 on page 138: out of all the breeds tested, pit bulls were markedly the worst when it came to the percentage of dogs that reached a more serious level of aggression.

10. "It's racism for dogs!"

Humans are not dogs, and dog breeds are not analogous to human races.
In addition, one cannot compare a race of people to a breed of dogs for a multitude of reasons. Dog breeds were selectively, intentionally bred for specific characteristics and traits by human beings. Humans created dog breeds based on what physical and behavioral traits we wanted them to have. (Spaniels for flushing, retrievers for fetching prey/birds without damage, livestock guardian dogs such as Great Pyrenees for protecting livestock, Huskies for endurance and energy, Pointers for pointing, etc. Different dog breeds have different behavioral tendencies because humans selectively bred them to have those tendencies). Dogs also do not suffer from cultural differences, institutionalized racism, or socioeconomic disparities. Humans are also not as heavily influenced by our instincts as dogs are. Dogs behave based on their instincts and training. Humans behave mainly on their "training." Humans also have far more complex thought processes and the ability to make complex decisions. Dogs do not. You could go on and on but that is the basic overview there- dogs were selectively bred and rely mainly on their instincts. Humans were not selectively bred and are capable of making complex and rational decisions.
Post continued in the comments due to the character limit.
submitted by Rumored17 to BanPitBulls [link] [comments]


2020.09.15 23:29 Rumored17 Refutations for Every Main Pro-Pit Argument

1."It's all how you raise them."

And more:
• ⁠Lockwood, R. A. N. D. A. L. L. (2016). Ethology, ecology and epidemiology of canine aggression. The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behaviour & Interactions with People,, 160-181.
• ⁠Abrantes, R., Site, A., Camp, S., Diving, F. A. Q., Camp, G. P., Pages, M., ... & User, C. C. (2016). Aggressive Behavior—Inheritance and Environment.
• ⁠van den Berg, L. I. N. D. A. (2016). Genetics of dog behavior. The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behavior and Interactions with People, 5, 69.
• ⁠O'Neill, D. G., & Packer, R. M. (2016). The First Canine Behavior and Genetics Conference: Summary and recommendations for future directions in canine behavioral science. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 16, 6-12.
• ⁠Sørensen, M. (2016). Breeding aggression: Review of recent literature concerning the influence of genes on aggressive behaviour (Doctoral dissertation).
• ⁠Schilder, M. B., van der Borg, J. A., & Vinke, C. M. (2019). Intraspecific killing in dogs: predation behavior or aggression? A study of aggressors, victims, possible causes and motivations. Journal of Veterinary Behavior.
These studies all show that genetics play a large role in dog behavior. Most are related to Pit Bulls or aggression, but some just show that there are noticeable differences between dog breeds based on their breed. Here are some anecdotal sources to support the claims that Pit Bulls are born with a tendency to be aggressive:
In addition, "it's all how you raise them" goes against the very existence of dog breeds. If someone is arguing this, they are saying a Labrador Retriever will have the same instincts as a Border Collie, which will have the same instincts as a Doberman, which will have the same instincts as a Great Pyrenees, which will have the same instincts as a Dachshund, etc. This is observably and demonstrably false. Humans created different dog breeds with different temperaments and physical and behavioral traits through selective breeding. This is why dog breeds exist, this is why breed standards exist, this is why people can reasonably and accurately predict how a dog will act based on breed. Are there exceptions? Of course. However, that is just what they are- exceptions. Different dog breeds have different traits and tendencies dependent on what they were selectively bred for.

2. "Chihuahuas are more aggressive."

This is just a disingenuous attempt to derail the conversation. Even if Chihuahuas are more aggressive, they don't/can't kill people. If Chihuahuas were as large as Pit Bulls, perhaps this would be a conversation worth having- seeing as this is not the case, there is no argument to be had here.
I try to emphasize that the issue with Pits is how many people and pets they kill. Pit Bulls are not just biting people- they are killing, severely maiming, and mauling people. There is a huge difference, and it is important to recognize many Pit fanatics will try to lump in all dog bites with the maulings Pit Bulls are responsible for. They are not the same. This is similar to the "Labs bite more" argument- again, we are not just talking about bites. Keep the discussion focused on severe maulings, maimings, and deaths, because that is what BSL targets.
From 1982-2020 no Chihuahua has ever killed anyone. This source breaks down attacks by breed, child or adult victim, and death or maiming.

3. "There's no such thing as a Pit Bull." and "Pit Bulls can't be identified."

A good way to avoid even getting to this apologist bingo point is by using the phrasing "Pit Bull type dogs" as opposed to Pit Bulls. However, you can also just explain that "Pit Bull" is an umbrella term for four closely related dog breeds- the American Pit Bull Terrier, the American Staffordshire Terrier, the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, and the American Bully. The American Pit Bull Terrier and the American Staffordshire Terrier are actually so similar they can be dual registered as an AmStaff with the AKC and a APBT with the UKC. Until recently, most dog DNA tests would not even separate AmStaff from APBT due to the extreme similarities. This is also just another deflection technique- everyone knows what someone means by "Pit Bull" just as everyone knows what someone means by "Golden Retriever." This is what "pit bull" means legally.
Now, because "Pit Bull" does refer to 4 dog breeds rather than one, Pit apologists will often cry "well of course 4 dog breeds will kill more people!" but keep in mind that these 4 dog breeds have killed more people than 300+ other dog breeds combined. The Pit Bull umbrella kills more people than every other group or type of dogs and more than every other dog breed combined.
Regarding Pit Bulls being unidentifiable:
Pit Bulls have just as many obvious identifying characteristics as other dog breeds. There is no reason to believe Pit Bulls suffer from misidentification more than other dog breeds. There is reason to believe Pit Bulls are intentionally mislabeled as other breeds when in shelters, however. In addition, when discussing fatal Pit Bull attacks specifically, more often than not there are photos of the Pit Bulls involved so anyone can verify for themselves if they were Pit Bull type dogs. Genetic testing is not required for breed identification- anyone who argues this is being disingenuous. Another point is that we are constantly inundated with Pro-Pit propaganda; there is simply no way we can have Pixar shorts such as Kitbull and a new Dodo video every week about Pit Bulls and still be expected to believe the average person cannot visually identify a Pit Bull.

4. Pits are no more dangerous than other dogs.

The statistics also support our side here- Pit Bulls have killed more people than all other dog breeds combined. Pit Bulls are not the largest, nor the strongest dogs out there. They do not have the strongest bite force. They are more deadly than other dog breeds because humans selectively bred them to be as deadly as possible. They are deadly due to the nature of their attacks and the behavioral traits they display when attacking such as gameness and a bite style mentioned in some of these studies, along with their physical traits.

5. "It used to be Dobermans, Rottweilers, and German Shepherds that people wanted to ban!"

Pit Bulls have killed more people than those three breeds ever did, even at the height of their popularity, even combined. There is also no evidence supporting this claim, and in fact, quite a lot of evidence showing it's completely false.
It is important to note as well that none of these breeds have an entire lobby supporting them. They do not have communities dedicated to attack victim harassment, misinformation, and lies, unlike the Pit Bull has. Something interesting to consider is the bias online when looking at these breeds and other restricted breeds vs pages about Pit Bulls. Wikipedia in particular is very obviously being manipulated by Pit Bull fanatics.
None of this manipulation is occurring on the pages for Dobermans, Rottweilers, or German Shepherds. These three breeds never reached anywhere close to the level of suffering and carnage Pit Bulls are responsible for. There has never been a concerted effort to ban these breeds, although some are targeted by apartment restrictions due to insurance issues. There is also no lobby supporting the misinformation and misrepresentation of these breeds.

6. "Dogsbite.org is biased and unreliable."

Dogsbite is completely open and transparent about their data collection strategies. They provide identification photographs and have all of their citations publicly listed. Citations and Photographs
Here is a challenge I like to give to people who claim Dogsbite is unreliable, although I have yet to receive a legitimate response:
Have you actually looked into dogsbite.org yourself? You do know that dogsbite tracks every fatal dog attack, regardless if it's a Pit or not? It appears anti-Pit because most fatal dog attacks are done by Pits. They're not only posting Pit attacks- there are just so many more fatal Pit attacks than other breeds it appears they are.
Here's a proposal for you:
Go to 2020 and late 2019, a time frame for which news reports are still abundantly available all over the internet, and fact-check ANY FOUR DOG-BITE FATALITIES OF YOUR CHOOSING, two where the killer dogs are said to be pit/mixes, and two cases where the killer dogs are not said to be pit/mixes:
  1. Did DogsBite accurately name the person killed?
  2. Did DogsBite accurately summarize the circumstances in which the person was killed?
  3. Did DogsBite accurately identify the breed(s) of the killer dog(s)?
  4. Did DogsBite provide a photo or photos of the killer dog(s) so you can judge for yourself what type of dog(s) you think did the killing?
DogsBite and Wikipedia both provide links to news stories about these fatal attacks. If you don't want to use the news links provided by DogsBite, then use the ones on Wikipedia that cover the same stories. DogsBite also provides links to autopsy reports, police reports and 911 calls, so you can compare these primary sources with the summaries on the DogsBite page and assess whether those summaries are accurate.

7. "Human aggressive Pit Bulls were culled!"

This is a myth. While human aggression was not something that was typically selectively bred for it is a myth that most human aggressive Pits were culled. That was not the case, and it still is not the case today. One look at shelter descriptions of Pits with bite histories and severe aggression issues shows these dogs are not being euthanized, and there are several instances of Pit Bulls who have killed people being bred.
There's no evidence whatsoever that dog fighters routinely destroyed human-aggressive dogs and refused to breed them. u/NorthTwoZero wrote at length about why it's a myth here, and this blogger put together a documented list of famously human-aggressive fighting dogs who not only weren't "culled" but were bred so often that they produced over 1,200 known, registered offspring:
"The man-biters were culled and the pit bulls were not bred for human aggression myths were created from thin air, complete fabrications. There is not a sliver of truth in the myth that dogmen culled man-biters. Not only weren't human aggressive pit fighters NOT culled, but a talented man-biter was heavily bred, his stud services were in high demand and the stud fees commanded a premium. The progeny of man-biters are still sought out long after he or she has passed away. This Italian game-dog website lists their choice for the Best Ever fighting dogs, three of the five are known man-biters and the other two trace their origins to the others on their "Best" list. Some famous man-biters have their own facebook fan pages. If you happen to be a 10x winner with 3 kills and scratching on the carcass, people tend to overlook a little thing like the danger she poses to people and she is also likely to be nominated for the cover of this month's International Sporting Dog Journal. Some famous man-biters not only have a facebook fan page, they have their own promotional merchandise too."

8. "Pit Bulls were nanny dogs!" or "Pit Bulls were America's dog!"

First, I usually ask questions that demonstrate out how absurd that claim is. What is a nanny dog? What duties does a nanny dog perform? Why would a dog type be called a "Pit Bull" if it nannied? Where does the name "Pit Bull" come from? Why is it necessary for Pits to have such large, gaping mouths and extremely muscular bodies if they were nannies? Then here is some actual info:
The first appearance of the term "Nanny Dog" dates from a 1971 NYT interview with the then president of the Staffordshire Bull Terrier Club of America, Lillian Rant, who called Staffordshire Bull Terriers "nursemaid dogs" for no apparent reason (other than to attempt to re-brand fighting dogs as family pets).
BAD RAP shared a link.
It's Dog Bite Prevention Week. Did you know that there was never such thing as a 'Nanny's Dog'? This term was a recent invention created to describe the myriad of vintage photos of children enjoying their family pit bulls (see link for details about vintage photos). While the intention behind the term was innocent, using it may mislead parents into being careless with their children around their family dog - A recipe for dog bites!
Regarding Pits being "America's dog": Bronwen Dickey (author of incredibly biased and unscientific book "Pit Bull: The Battle over an American Icon") and other pit bull advocates argue that pit bulls were historically beloved in the U.S. until the dogs became associated with urban people of color in the 1970s, so Pit Bull stigma is really about being racist toward black and brown people.
But pit bulls were not historically beloved in the U.S. nor were they popularly regarded as a positive symbol of plucky can-do spirit. Joseph Colby, in his lifetime one of the world's leading authorities on the Pit Bull Terrier, wrote in 1936 that "The general public is under the impression that this breed is carnivorous, vicious, and, fed on a diet of raw meat, will devour a human being" and "When the pit bull terrier was introduced into America, he was more commonly found to be owned by prize fighters, saloon keepers and habitues, sporting men and the like. From the start the breed earned an unjust reputation due to his fighting ability and the character of the owner. To this day he is still trying to live down an unjust and undeserved reputation."
Sometimes Pit people will randomly mention how Sergeant Stubby, a decorated war hero dog, was a Pit Bull. He was not. Primary (contemporary) sources most often describe Stubby as a Boston Terrier or Boston Terrier mix (this breed was sometimes called the Boston Bulldog). He is sometimes said to be a Bull Terrier (the egghead dogs) mix but he obviously resembles a Boston Terrier significantly more than a Bull Terrier. Stubby is never said to be a Pit Bull in primary sources.

9. "Pit Bulls scored 2nd highest on temperament tests and better than most family dog breeds!"

This is always referring to the ATTS, or the American Temperament Testing Society. It is refuted thoroughly in the BanPitBulls FAQ, but this is what I usually say as well:
The test was developed to test working dogs, specifically dogs meant for schutzhund work. It has never been, nor ever purported to be about testing companion animals or a breed's suitability as family pets. Scoring actually favors dogs that bite, in some cases. Breed specific temperament, aggression, and each dog's training is taken into account when scoring. This means that if a relatively untrained Lab bites a "threatening stranger" it will score far lower than a German Shepherd that bites a "threatening stranger."
According to the ATTS itself, "95% of dogs who fail do so because they lack confidence" NOT because they bite. Dogs that exhibit avoidance behaviors will fail. Dogs that bite do not automatically fail.
The ATTS also states that comparing scores with other dogs means nothing- the pass/fail rates cannot be compared. Different dog breeds that behave the same exact way on the test will get hugely different scores due to the fact they take inherent breed tendencies into consideration.
The test is not designed to test for breed aggression, according to the ATTS website. It is more of a test of bravery for individual dogs. Timid dogs will always fail. Dogs that bite will not always fail.
If anything, you could argue that the reason Pits have a high passing rate is because they bite or show aggression, although that is speculation and not proven. Either way though- the test does not test breed aggression, passing rates cannot be compared, and the test absolutely does not test for suitability as a family pet.
More info here: What the ATTS is really showing.
It is also worth mentioning that the only dogs that participate in the ATTS testing are dogs brought in by their owners- it is not a random sample or scientific study of any kind. Considering the evidence showing the existence of an actual Pit Bull lobby, it would not be a reach to say these results have been intentionally manipulated (if they did even matter, which they don't).
Also, a controlled temperament test found that 13 percent, or one out of seven, pit bulls tried to bite or attack during a one hour test simulating a neighborhood walk. One out of seven pit bulls tried to bite in the span of just one hour compared to only one out of 70 golden retrievers. Note that this study was funded and authored by anti-breed ban activists: They found "no significant difference" between breeds when the definition of aggression was watered down to include even whining or crying. But pay close attention to Table 5 on page 138: out of all the breeds tested, pit bulls were markedly the worst when it came to the percentage of dogs that reached a more serious level of aggression.

10. "It's racism for dogs!"

Humans are not dogs, and dog breeds are not analogous to human races.
In addition, one cannot compare a race of people to a breed of dogs for a multitude of reasons. Dog breeds were selectively, intentionally bred for specific characteristics and traits by human beings. Humans created dog breeds based on what physical and behavioral traits we wanted them to have. (Spaniels for flushing, retrievers for fetching prey/birds without damage, livestock guardian dogs such as Great Pyrenees for protecting livestock, Huskies for endurance and energy, Pointers for pointing, etc. Different dog breeds have different behavioral tendencies because humans selectively bred them to have those tendencies). Dogs also do not suffer from cultural differences, institutionalized racism, or socioeconomic disparities. Humans are also not as heavily influenced by our instincts as dogs are. Dogs behave based on their instincts and training. Humans behave mainly on their "training." Humans also have far more complex thought processes and the ability to make complex decisions. Dogs do not. You could go on and on but that is the basic overview there- dogs were selectively bred and rely mainly on their instincts. Humans were not selectively bred and are capable of making complex and rational decisions.
Post continued in the comments due to the character limit.
submitted by Rumored17 to BanPitBulls [link] [comments]


2020.09.10 22:35 Deanothedino Since 1900 there have been 19 teams score at least 25 runs in an MLB game. If you include before 1900, 29 teams have scored more than 25 runs in an MLB game (data within)

After 1900:
Winning Team Score Team and Opponent Losing Team Score Date League
30 Texas Rangers at Baltimore Orioles 3 Aug 22, 2007 American
29 Atlanta Braves vs Miami Marlins 9 Sept 9, 2020 National
29 Chicago White Sox at Kansas City A's 6 Apr 23, 1955 American
29 Boston Red Sox vs St. Louis Browns 4 Jun 8, 1950 American
28 St. Louis Cardinals at Philadelphia Phillies 6 Jul 6, 1929 National
27 Cleveland Indians vs Boston Red Sox 3 July 7, 1923 American
26 Kansas City Royals at Detroit Tigers 5 Sept 9, 2004 American
26 Texas Rangers vs Baltimore Orioles 7 Apr 19, 1996 American
26 Chicago Cubs at Colorado Rockies 7 Aug 18, 1995 National
26 Philadelphia Phillies vs New York Mets 7 June 11, 1985 National
26 Cleveland Indians at St. Louis Browns 3 Aug 12, 1948 American
26 New York Giants vs Brooklyn Dodgers 8 Apr 30, 1944 National
26 Chicago Cubs vs Philadelphia Phillies 23 Aug 25, 1922 National
26 Cincinnati Reds vs Boston Rustlers 3 Jun 4, 1911 National
25 Boston Red Sox vs Florida Marlins 8 June 27, 2003 American
25 New York Yankees at Philadelphia A's 2 May 24, 1936 American
25 Cleveland Indians vs Philadelphia A's 7 May 11, 1930 American
25 Brooklyn Superbas at Cincinnati Reds 6 Sep 23, 1901 National
25 New York Giants at Cincinnati Reds 13 Jun 9, 1901 National
Prior to 1900:
Winning Team Score Team and Opponent Losing Team Score Date League
36 Chicago Colts vs Louisville Colonels 7 Jun 29, 1987 National
35 Chicago White Stockings vs Cleveland Blues 4 Jul 24, 1882 National
31 Chicago White Stockings vs Buffalo Bisons 7 Jul 3, 1883 National
30 Chicago White Stockings vs Louisville Grays 7 Jul 22, 1876 National
30 Boston Beaneaters vs Detroit Wolverines 8 Jun 9, 1883 National
30 Philadelphia A's at Buffalo Bisons 12 Jun 26, 1890 Players
30 Milwaukee Brewers vs Washington Statesmen 3 Sep 10, 1891 American Association
30 Cincinnati Reds vs Louisville Colonels 12 Jun 18, 1893 National
28 Boston Beaneaters vs Pittsburgh Alleghenys 14 Aug 27, 1887 National
28 Brooklyn Bridegrooms vs Buffalo Bison 16 July 12, 1890 Players

25+ Run Stats (including Before and After 1900):
League Breakdown:
National: 16, American: 10, Players: 2, American Association: 1
Most Common Month:
June: 9, July: 6, August: 5, September: 4, April: 3, May: 2
Most Common Score:
36: 1, 35: 1, 31: 1, 30: 6, 29: 3, 28: 3, 27: 1, 26: 8, 25: 5
Largest Margin:
27 - Twice
Closest Score:
26-23
Sources:
https://sabr.org/journal/article/the-highest-scoring-games/
http://www.mlb.com/mlb/history/rare_feats/index.jsp?feature=most_runs_game
submitted by Deanothedino to baseball [link] [comments]


2020.09.03 02:09 StevenStevens43 The Old world

The Old world
Old world:
The old world, was a term coined to depict the unified civilization of Afro-Eurasia. Or at least, the concept.
Old world
The term "Old World" is used commonly in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island)
Old world
Old world
Indus Valley civilization:
The early Southern roots for this Old world, began to develop at the dawn of the Indus Valley civilization, around 4500 BC, when the Indus began to spread out, and formed contemporaneous relationships with Africans and Asiatics.
India
By 4,500 BCE, settled life had spread more widely,[2] and began to gradually evolve into the Indus Valley Civilization, an early civilization of the Old world, which was contemporaneous with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.
Dravidian language:
When the Indus began to spread out, they spoke Dravidic
Proto-Dravidian
As a proto-language, the Proto-Dravidian language is not itself attested in the historical record. Its modern conception is based solely on reconstruction. It was suggested in the 1980s that the language was spoken in the 4th millennium BCE, and started disintegrating into various branches around 3rd millennium BCE.
Indo-Aryan
Between 2589–2566 BC, Khufu the Pharoah would find himself in an Indo-Aryan partnership with his vizier Ankhhaf.
Khufu
Khufu (/ˈkuːfuː/, full name Khnum Khufu (/ˈknuːm ˈkuːfuː/), known to the ancient Greeks as Cheops) was an ancient Egyptian monarch who was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty,
Link for photo.jpg)
Khufu
Ankhhaf:
And Ankhhaf was Khufus vizier. Ankhhaf was also the son of a previous Pharoah named Sneferu.
Family
Ankhhaf was a son of pharaoh Sneferu and an unknown wife.[2] Ankhhaf's tomb in Giza (G 7510) depicts his sister-wife Princess Hetepheres.
Link for photo
Ankhhaf
Racist remarks by Sneferu:
I would like to deviate just a second, to point to some remarks made by Ankhhafs father. Sneferu.
The remarks were made while Sneferu was invading Nubia in order to acquire slaves to build the pyramid of Giza.
Not sure the remark is necessarily racist, but certainly telling.
Foreign relations
Raid in the Land of the Blacks, and the bringing in of seven thousandprisoners, men and women, and twenty thousand cattle, sheep, andgoats...
Indus Valley golden age:
This period, around 2500 BC, coincided with the Indus Valley golden age.
History of India
This civilization flourished between 2,500 BCE and 1900 BCE in what today is Pakistan and north-western India and was noted for its urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage, and water supply.
Gu-Edin:
Now a very interesting story develops out of Baked brick houses. The story originates in Gu-Edin, in Sumer.
Gu-Edin
Gu-Edin (also transcribed "Gu'edena" or "Guedena") was a fertile plain in Sumer, in modern-day Iraq. It lay between Umma and Lagash, and claims made on it by each side were a cause of war.[1] Argument over the territory continued for around 150 years.[2]
Link to photo
Gu-Edin
Semitic Akkadians:
And someone has added the word "Semitic Akkadians" on the top left hand corner of this map.
I have already covered elsewhere, that the Sumerians referred to themselves as black headed people, and Akkadian was not even a Semitic language. It was the language spoken by the Mesopotamians that conquered the Sumerians in 2300 BC when Sargon of Akkad conquered Sumer. And the Akkadian language evolved in to the Semitic language, mergining components from both the Akkadian language, and the Sumerian language.
However, just because the Semitic language adopted certain Sumerian components, this is no way makes the Kishite language, that was the Sumerian language, Semitic.
However you will find this information complete with links on other threads. (I may come back later and produce a link to what thread this information can be found).
Link for above
Back to Gu-Edin:
Gu-Edin was conquered by a warlord named Eannatum
Reign of Eannatum
It is recorded on the Stele of the Vultures that Gu-Edin was pillaged by a later (énsi)) of Umma, who ruled that city on behalf of its god Shara), and whose name, according to the Cone of Enmetena,[a] was Ush. Gu-Edin had been claimed by the énsi of Lagash, Eannatum
Eannatum:
Eannatum was an Ensi, which pretty much translates to Vizier, around 2500 BC, and written records would pretty much record him as being one of the worlds first known emperors (even though we know there were earlier emperors by some considerable margin).
Eannatum
Eannatum (Sumerian: 𒂍𒀭𒈾𒁺 É.AN.NA-tum2) was a Sumerian Ensi) (ruler or king) of Lagash circa 2500–2400 BCE. He established one of the first verifiable empires in history: he subdued Elam and destroyed the city of Susa as well as several other Iranian cities, and extended his domain to Sumer and Akkad).
Ensi:
And an Ensi is not truly an emperor. An Ensi is simply a king of a principality, and is a vassal for an emperor. An ensi is more similar to a Nomarch, than a monarch.
Ensi)
Ensi (cuneiform: 𒑐𒋼𒋛 pa).te).si) Sumerian: ensik, "lord of the plowland"; Emesal dialect: umunsik; Akkadian: iššakkum)[1]#citenote-1)[[2]](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ensi(Sumerian)#cite_note-2) was a Sumerian title designating the ruler or prince of a city-state. Originally it may have designated an independent ruler, but in later periods the title presupposed subordinance to a lugal.
Brick of Eannatum:
However what is interesting about the baked brick houses, comes from the brick of Eannatum, where Eannatum is credited with making a well out of baked bricks for his lover Ningirsu.
Brick of Eannatum
Eannatum, the ensi) of Lagash, who was granted might by Enlil, who constantly is nourished by Ninhursag with her milk, whose name Ningirsu had pronounced, who was chosen by Nanshe in her heart, the son of Akurgal, the ensi of Lagash, conquered the land of Elam, conquered Urua, conquered Umma, conquered Ur. At that time, he built a well made of baked bricks for Ningirsu, in his wide temple courtyard. Eananatum's god is Shulutula. Then did Ningirsu love Eannatum".
Link for photo
Brick of Eannatum
Jushur:
So what does this all mean? Who is Eannatum? If Eannatum was Sumerian already, and a black headed one already, why would he need to be conquering cities in Sumer?
The answer to this lies in the Sumerian king list.
The first "post deluvian" Sumerian king of Kish was Jushur.
Jushur
Jushur (cuneiform: 𒄑𒃡 ĜIŠ.UR3; Sumerian: Ĝušur) was the first king of the first dynasty of Kish) according to the Sumerian king list. It claims he reigned in Sumer for 1,200 years as the first post-diluvian king.[1]
Link for photo.jpg)
Sumerian king list
Cattle count:
And those ridiculous years attributed to those kings, such as 1200, gives the impression that those were simply mythological kings.
However there were no calender years in those days. Instead a year was judged by the cattle count.
Basically, the tax year.
Jushur lived for a period of 1200 tax years. Not annual years.
Cattle count
In ancient Egypt, the cattle count was one of the two main means of evaluating the amount of taxes to be levied, the other one being the height of the annual inundation. A very important economic event, the cattle count was controlled by high officials, and was connected to several cultic feasts. In addition it served as a means of dating other events, with the entire year when it occurred being called "year of the Xth cattle count under the person of the king Y".
Ziusudra:
However, if we carry on past Jushur, we learn that there was a previous Sumerian king list that was destroyed by a cataclysm which occurred in this area around 2,900 BC and it destroyed Sumer, and probably also badly effected surrounding regions.
This would explain why, Eannatum was having to reconquer Sumerian lands, since 4000 BC.
It is also likely that Ziusudra, is "Zeus".
Ziusudra
Ziusudra (Sumerian: 𒍣𒌓𒋤𒁺 ZI.UD.SUD.RA2 Ziudsuřa(k) "life of long days"; Greek: Ξίσουθρος, translit. Xisuthros) or Zin-Suddu (Sumerian: 𒍣𒅔𒋤𒁺 ZI.IN.SUD.DU) of Shuruppak (c. 2900 BC) is listed in the WB-62 Sumerian king list recension as the last king of Sumer prior to the Great Flood. He is subsequently recorded as the hero of the Sumerian creation myth and appears in the writings of Berossus as Xisuthros.
Earthquake:
The cataclysm was likely a major flood caused by the earthquake in Bubastist in around 2890 BC.
Reign
The ancient Egyptian historian Manetho called Hotepsekhemwy Boëthôs (apparently altered from the name Bedjau) and reported that during this ruler's reign "a chasm opened near Bubastis and many perished". Although Manetho wrote in the 3rd century BC – over two millennia after the king's actual reign – some Egyptologists think it possible that this anecdote may have been based on fact, since the region near Bubastis is known to be seismically active.[5]
Indo-Aryan tribes:
Now it is important to understand, that at this point in time, there was no such thing as Indo-European.
At this point in time, it was Indo-Aryan.
It is also likely that this Cataclysm led to the destruction, of not only Sumer, but also the Indus Valley civilization which suffered famine and drought.
It appears that Indo-Aryan tribes took advantage of this, and invaded India.
Though, many (at least half) of the Indo-Aryans invading India, would of course have been descended from Dravidic speakers in the first place, back before they left India for Egypt.
History of India
In the early second millennium BCE, persistent drought caused the population of the Indus Valley to scatter from large urban centres to villages. Around the same time, Indo-Aryan tribes moved into the Punjab from regions further northwest in several waves of migration. The resulting Vedic period was marked by the composition of the Vedas,
Indo-Aryan culture:
From this invasion, Indus Valley would slowly adopt a new culture.
Religions such as Hinduism would emerge.
More Indian history
large collections of hymns of these tribes whose postulated religious culture, through synthesis with the preexisting religious cultures of the subcontinent, gave rise to Hinduism.
Battle of the ten kings:
Though there would also be wars, as not all Indians would welcome this invasion.
Historical events
The battle took place during the middle or main Rigvedic period,[4] near the Ravi River in Punjab. It was a battle between the Puru) Vedic Aryan tribal kingdoms of the Bharatas),
Maghadan culture:
But slowly a new culture would form in India, and the Maghadan culture would slowly evolve to become regarded as Indias indigenous culture.
The culture would also see many Scientific and academical achievements, and a new golden age.
Maghada
Magadha was an ancient Indian kingdom in southern Bihar, and was counted as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas, 'Great Countries' of ancient India. Magadha played an important role in the development of Jainism and Buddhism, and two of India's greatest empires, the Maurya Empire and Gupta Empire, originated in Magadha.
The Mauryan Empire and Gupta Empire, both of which originated in Magadha, saw advancements in ancient India's science, mathematics, astronomy, religion, and philosophy and were considered the Golden Age of India.
Link to photo
Maghadan expansion
Maghadan men:
Many men would become Maghadan men.
Buddha, for example, was regarded as a Maghada man.
History
Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, lived much of his life in the kingdom of Magadha.
Indigenous non Maghadans:
Indians that considered themselves indigenous, and non Aryan, actually did not welcome Buddha, because he was a maghada man, spreading Indo-Aryan
Historical context
One of Gautama's usual names was "Sakamuni" or "Sakyamunī" ("Sage of the Shakyas"). This and the evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born into the Shakya clan, a community that was on the periphery, both geographically and culturally, of the eastern Indian subcontinent in the 5th century BCE.[66] The community was either a small republic, or an oligarchy. His father was an elected chieftain, or oligarch.[66] Bronkhorst calls this eastern culture Greater Magadha and notes that "Buddhism and Jainism arose in a culture which was recognized as being non-Vedic".[67]
The Shakyas were an eastern sub-Himalayan ethnic group who were considered outside of the Āryāvarta and of ‘mixed origin’ (saṃkīrṇa-yonayaḥ, possibly part Aryan and part indigenous). The laws of Manu treats them as being non Aryan. As noted by Levman, "The Baudhāyana-dharmaśāstra (1.1.2.13–4) lists all the tribes of Magadha as being outside the pale of the Āryāvarta; and just visiting them required a purificatory sacrifice as expiation" (In Manu 10.11, 22).[68]
Link for photo
Meghadan early roots
Indo-European:
In reality however, Hinduism was already Indo-Aryan.
What Buddha was introducing, was Indo-European, which was evolving out of the clash between Dravidian and Indo-Aryan.
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.09.01 17:47 StevenStevens43 Indus Valley to Ancient Egypt

Indus Valley to Ancient Egypt
Boating:
There may be an argument that boating has South Asian routes dating as far back as 900,000 BC
History
Boats have served as transportation since the earliest times.[1] Circumstantial evidence, such as the early settlement of Australia over 40,000 years ago, findings in Crete dated 130,000 years ago,[2] and in Flores dated to 900,000 years ago,[3]
Shipping:
But there is no argument to be had, that Indus Valley was "at least" involved in the earliest known shipping.
More history
Boats were used between 4000 and 3000 BC in Sumer,[1] ancient Egypt[12] and in the Indian Ocean.[1]
Indus Valley origins:
However, those boats were not built in Mesopotamia. They were built in Indus Valley, and arrived in Mesopotamia.
Even more history
Boats played an important role in the commerce between the Indus Valley Civilization and Mesopotamia.[13] Evidence of varying models of boats has also been discovered at various Indus Valley archaeological sites.[14][15] Uru) craft originate in Beypore, a village in south Calicut, Kerala, in southwestern India. This type of mammoth wooden ship was constructed[when?] solely of teak, with a transport capacity of 400 tonnes. The ancient Arabs and Greeks used such boats as trading vessels.[16]
Hindu mythology:
In Hindu mythology and legends, the Hindu God Menaka was born during a sea voyage.
Menaka
Menaka was born during the churning of the ocean
Merka:
There was an anceint egyptian high official/vizier named "Merka" that served under the Egyptian pharoah Qa'a between 2943 BC and 2910 BC, though no-one knows who Merka is.
Name sources
One was found in the mastaba of the high official Merka&action=edit&redlink=1) who served under king Qa'a
Khufu ship:
One of the earliest ships to be constructed in Ancient Egypt, was the Khufu ship, around 2500BC.
Developments
A remarkable example of their shipbuilding skills was the Khufu ship, a vessel 143 feet (44 m) in length entombed at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza around 2500 BC and found intact in 1954.
Khufu:
Khufu was an Egyptian pharoah.
Khufu
Khufu (/ˈkuːfuː/, full name Khnum Khufu (/ˈknuːm ˈkuːfuː/), known to the ancient Greeks as Cheops) was an ancient Egyptian monarch who was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty, in the first half of the Old Kingdom period (26th century BC).
Indian looking:
Link for photo.jpg)
Indian looking Pharoah
Merca:
Just like today, we have ports such as Merca, in Somalia
Merca
Merca (Somali: Marka, Arabic: مركة‎) is an ancient port city in the southern Lower Shebelle province of Somalia.
Byblos ship:
The ancient egyptians have always understood the importance of controlling the ports. Such as Byblos, in Canaan.
Egyptian period
Watson Mills and Roger Bullard suggest that during the Old Kingdom of Egypt, Byblos was virtually an Egyptian colony.[16] The growing city was evidently a wealthy one and seems to have been an ally (among "those who are on his waters") of Egypt for many centuries. First Dynasty tombs used timbers from Byblos. One of the oldest Egyptian words for an oceangoing boat was "Byblos ship".
Indus Valley:
But all this would appear to have had it's origins in Indus Valley.
Additionally:
The Scandinavians also appear to have been notorious sea voyagers, with Hjortspring boats dating back to 3000bc, according to depictions on rock carvings
Bronze age
Thousands of rock carvings from this period depict ships, and the large stone burial monuments known as stone ships, suggest that ships and seafaring played an important role in the culture at large. The depicted ships most likely represent sewn plank built canoes used for warfare, fishing and trade. These ship types may have their origin as far back as the neolithic period and they continue into the Pre-Roman Iron Age, as exemplified by the Hjortspring boat.
Khufus vizier:
And Khufu had a vizier named Ankhhaf
Ankhhaf
Prince Ankhhaf was an Egyptian prince and served as vizier and overseer of works to the Pharaoh Khufu, who was Ankhhaf's half-brother. He lived during Egypt's 4th Dynasty[1] (c. 2613 to c. 2494 BC).
Link to photo
Ankhhaf architect of great sphinx and pyramid of giza
Discussion and research:
Now what i would really like your opinions on, is the Hjortspring boats.
Were the Hjortspring boats built by early vikings?
Or were they URU boats?
How far did URU boats truly sail?
submitted by StevenStevens43 to IndusValley [link] [comments]


2020.08.29 18:16 IdolA29Augl G-ay Interr-acial Da-ting

G-ay Interr-acial Da-ting
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2020.08.28 15:00 DarthEquus The History of Medicalized Circumcision Part 2: 1885-1899

The History of Medicalized Circumcision Part 2: 1885-1899
In this brief period, circumcision rapidly transformed from an experimental procedure of antiquity into a nearly unquestioned cure-all for every ailment imaginable. Doctors also began to scrutinize the possible applications towards women as well.
In reference to the promotion of genital cutting by men like Remondino, Hutchinson, Johnson, Freeman, Lehman, and others, Jonathan Cohen (2011) wrote: "one of the most fascinating stories of the institutionalization of medical male circumcision is the discursive use of the Jews as racial proof of the benefits of circumcision, with a complete ignorance of sociological factors."

1885: ~10% of the American male population is circumcised

1887 Lewis Sayre, after promoting preventative circumcision for almost 20 years, finally limited his circumcision advocacy to therapeutic circumcision only rather than "indiscriminate" circumcision. His idea of therapeutic circumcision did still mean overdiagnosing infantile phimosis, but this was still an enormous improvement from his previous influential recommendations of totally non-therapeutic, preventative circumcision. [On the deleterious results of a narrow prepuce and preputial adhesions Trans. Ninth Internat. Med. Congress]
1887 M. A. Rust addressed circumcision in writing about the history of cultural mutilations:
"There is not a single tribe of savages on the face of the globe who do not disfigure parts of their bodies, and hardly a part of the body susceptible of disfigurement which has not been disfigured. This is not done in accordance with individual fancy, but in strict conformity to inexorable tribal rule.
Ornamentation lies at the root of many, but not of all of these mutilations. A great number of them entail such an amount of suffering and torture that, in order to establish them, to enforce submission and co-operation, potencies awful and mysterious must have been at work, striking fear into every individual heart. Once established, the obligation became as automatic as the daily walks of an ant.
Circumcision is the most ancient and widely spread mutilation in existence, and it is practiced in all the five parts of the world, though to the greatest extent in Asia, Africa, and among the savages of Australia. Of civilized nations we note about one hundred and thirty millions of Muhamedans, and about ten millions of Jews, and the Christians of Abyssinia. It was practiced in Mexico at the time of the conquest of Cortez, and, according to the accounts of modern travelers is still in use among Indian tribes in Nicaragua and on the Amazon.
No wonder that the origin of a mutilation so barbarous, so repulsive, and, at the same time, so widely spread and so tenaciously adhered to should have so repeatedly formed an object of inquiry and speculation. Muhamed found circumcision already an ancient usage among many of the Arabian tribes; he took it up for reasons akin to those for which Paul dropped it. It had prevailed, since time immemorial, among the Abyssinians, when they embraced Christianity. Travelers who make inquiries among savage tribes generally obtain for answer that it is a tribal custom which has always been; they cannot conceive why other reasons should be demanded."
[Mutilations. Gaillard's Medical Journal v. 45.]
1887 Angel Money writes:
"There can be no doubt of [masturbation's] injurous effect, and of the proneness to practice it on the part of children with defective brains. Circumcision should always be practiced. It may be necessary to make the genitals so sore by blistering fluids that pain results from attempts to rub the parts."
[Treatment of Disease In Children, Philidelphia: P. Blakiston, 1887. p.421.]
1888 John Harvey Kellogg (yes, the cereal guy) promoted irrational fear of masturbation and "spermatorrhoea." For girls, he warned that masturbation caused breast atrophy, uterine cancer, and insanity. He recommended circumcision and other surgical punishments for both boys and girls to punish and discourage masturbation. He also wrote positively of cauterizing the clitoris with acid to alleviate masturbation in girls. It's notable and often forgotten that he was promoting cutting the genitals of older children rather than infants. He wrote positively of the Jewish practice but also noted its tendency to scar the meatus (meatal stenosis). He advanced the propaganda that ancient genital surgery had always been performed for health. He also advocated the use of male chastity belts. The next entry after circumcision is castration as if to imply it was also the next genital surgical option should circumcision fail to produce the intended result. Like Kellogg, Hutchinson had also suggested castration as the next and more extreme option to cure masturbation.
"In younger children, with whom moral considerations will have no particular weight, other devices may be used. Bandaging the parts has been practiced with success. Tying the hands is also successful in some cases; but this will not always succeed, for they will often contrive to continue the habit in other ways, as by working the limbs, or lying upon the abdomen. Covering the organs with a cage has been practiced with entire success. A remedy which is almost always successful in small boys is circumcision, especially when there is any degree of phimosis. The operation should be performed by a surgeon without administering an anæsthetic, as the brief pain attending the operation will have a salutary effect upon the mind, especially if it be connected with the idea of punishment, as it may well be in some cases. The soreness which continues for several weeks interrupts the practice, and if it had not previously become too firmly fixed, it may be forgotten and not resumed."
"In females, the author has found the application of pure carbolic acid to the clitoris an excellent means of allaying the abnormal excitement, and preventing the recurrence of the practice in those whose will-power has become so weakened that the patient is unable to exercise entire self-control."
[Results of Secret Vice and Treatment for Self-abuse and Its Effects in Plain Facts for Old and Young, Burlington, Iowa, F. Segner & Co. — a longer excerpt from this work]

Chastity belts for boys and girls
1889 Peter Remondino, a San Diego physician and promoter of snake oil read his "A Plea for Circumcision; or, the Dangers that Arise from the Prepuce" at the meeting of the Southern California Medical Society.
"The subject of the paper was itself suggested by a long and personal observation of the changes made in man by circumcision. From the individual observation of cases, it was but natural to wish to enlarge the scope of our observation and comparison; this naturally led to a study of the physical characteristics of the only race that could practically be used for the purpose. This race is the Jewish race. On carefully studying into the subject, I plainly saw that much of their longevity could consistently be ascribed to their more practical humanitarianism, in caring for their poor, their sick, as well as in their generous provision for their unfortunate aged people. The social fabric of the Jewish family is also more calculated to promote long life, as, strangely as it may seem, family veneration and family love and attachment are far more strong and practical among this people than among Christians, this sentiment not being even as strong in the Christian races as it is in the Chinese or Japanese. … Actual observations show them [the Jews] to be exempt from many diseases which affect other races; so that it is not only that they recover more promptly, but that they are not, as a class, subjected to the loss of time by illness, or to the consequent sufferings due to illness or disease, in anything like or like ratio with other people. There is also a less tendency to criminality, debauchery, and intemperance in the race; this, again, can in a measure be ascribed to their family influence, which even in our day has not lost that patriarchal influence which tinges the home or family life in the Old Testament. Crimes against the person or property committed by Jews are rare. They likewise do not figure in either police courts or penitentiary records; they are not inmates of our poor-houses, but, what is also singular, they are never accused of many silly crimes, such as indecent exposures, assaults on young girls…."

1890: ~15% of the American male population is circumcised

1890 Herbert Snow, a London surgeon published a 57-page book, one of the first intactivist volumes of the modern era. He called for "the abolition of an antiquated practice involving the infliction of very considerable suffering upon helpless infants; and sanctioned, on very questionable grounds, by men of eminent authority.
"No sane man who possessed the advantages of a sound and entire prepuce would willingly sacrifice it without just and sufficient cause being shown."
[The Barbarity of Circumcision as a Remedy for Congenital Abnormality. London: J. & A. Churchill.]

The Orificial Surgical Society

1890 The Orificial Surgical Society "was founded by Edwin Hartley Pratt, a surgeon at the Cook County Hospital in Chicago. The organization was largely concerned with orifices below the waist, and provided training for surgery of the prepuce, clitoris, and rectum, the latter organ being given special emphasis. It was obsessed with the idea that most diseases were caused by tightness of the preputial or anal sphincters. … By the 1920s many of the member physicians had their licenses revoked." —Wallerstein Circumcision: An American Health Fallacy 1980:38 — See also: Rutkow IM. Edwin Hartley Pratt and orificial surgery: unorthodox surgical practice in nineteenth century United States. Surgery. 1993. and Moments in surgical history: orificial surgery. Arch Surg. 2001.
1890 William D. Gentry declared that phimosis in men and uterine disorders in women caused insanity, blindness, deafness, dumbness, epilepsy, paralysis and criminal behavior adding that "the genitals of either male or female are the centres of the nervous system". [Nervous derangements produced by sexual irregularities in boys. Trans American Institute of Homeopathy. v.43.]
1890 Jonathan Hutchinson wrote that the foreskin encouraged masturbation and "adds to the difficulties of sexual continence" and can even cause insanity. For evidence of the latter point, he pointed to the case of an anonymous surgeon committed to an insane asylum for compulsive masturbation. Adult circumcision was useful, he wrote, for breaking men of the habit of masturbation, but early childhood circumcision was ideal in his opinion. In closing, he wrote: "Measures more radical than circumcision would, if public opinion permitted their adoption, be a true kindness to many patients of both sexes" referring to the difficulty of getting the general public to accept the idea of doctor's electing to sterilize patients without their consent. [On circumcision as preventive of masturbation. Arch Surgery.]
1890 A review of Pogorelsky's Ritual circumcision of the Hebrews stated:
"As regards the predisposition to the acquirement of neuroses, the foreskin plays the same part in the male as the ovaries in the female." Sayre traced reflex paralysis and contracture of the lower extremeties; Erichsen, spasmodic diseases, to congenital phimosis.
Further, hypochondriacal persons with inclination to commit suicide, individuals who suffer from uro-paraplegia, nervous tremor, chorea minor, neuralgia, hysteria, hallucinations and paresis have been cured by circumcision.
Although circumcised persons contract gonorrhea more easily than uncircumcised, yet syphilis less often; the sexual desire is less in the former, hence crimes against morality are rarer."
Review of Pogorelsky M. Ritual circumcision of the Hebrews in The Medical Times. v.17. 1890.]
1891 Peter C. Remondino published a book of circumcision activism in which he vilified the foreskin at length as a malign influence and "moral outlaw." Repeating the false circumcision-prevents-masturbation meme, Remondino wrote, "the practice of [masturbation] can be asserted as being very rare among the children of circumcised races." According to Remondino excising foreskin would not only discourage boys from masturbating, but immunize them against tuberculosis, cancer, syphilis, polio, idiocy, forgetfulness, impotence, unwanted erections, wet dreams and just about any medical problem you cared to mention.
"The prepuce seems to exercise a malign influence in the most distant and apparently unconnected manner: where, like some of the evil genii or sprites in the Arabian tales, it can reach from afar the object of its malignity, striking him down unawares in the most unaccountable manner; making him a victim to all manner of ills, sufferings, and tribulations; unfitting him for marriage or the cares of business; making him miserable and an object of continual scolding and punishment in childhood, through its worriments and nocturnal enuresis; later on, beginning to affect him with all kinds of physical distortions and ailments, nocturnal pollutions, and other conditions calculated to weaken him physically, mentally, and morally; to land him, perchance, in jail or even in a lunatic asylum. Man's whole life is subject to the capricious dispensations and whims of this Job's-comforts-dispensing enemy of man."
[Remondino PC. History of Circumcision… moral and physical reasons for its performance… and of the different operations practiced upon the prepuce Philadelphia: F. A. Davis. 1891.]
1891 Jefferson C. Crossland writes that:
"In consequence of circumcision the epithelial covering of the glans becomes dry, hard, less liable to excoriation and inflammation, and less pervious to venereal viruses. The sensibility of the glans is diminished, but not sufficiently to interfere with the copulative function of the organ or to constitute an objection...It is well authenticated that the foreskin...is a fruitful cause of the habit of masturbation in children... I conclude that the foreskin is detrimental to health, and that circumcision is a wise measure of hygiene."
[The Hygiene of Circumcision. NYMJ. 1891;53:484-485.]
1892 Circumcision was not the only proposed cure for masturbation. Some physicians such as David Yellowlee detailed another version of punitive and supposedly therapeutic preputial infibulation:
"Some direct operative interference, which shall prevent masturbation and show him that he can live without it, may be of much service. The best form of such interference is so to fix the foreskin that erection becomes painful and erotic impulses very unwelcome. To accomplish this, the prepuce is drawn well forward, the left forefinger inserted within it down to the root of the glans, and a nickel‐plated safety‐pin, introduced from the outside through skin and mucous membrane, is passed horizontally for half an inch or so past the tip of the left finger, and then brought out through mucous membrane and skin so as to fasten outside. Another pin is similarly fixed on the opposite side of the prepuce. With the foreskin thus looped up any attempt at erection causes a painful dragging on the pins, and masturbation is effectually prevented. In about a week some ulceration of the mucous membrane will allow greater movement and with less pain, when the pins can, if needful, be introduced into a fresh place."
It should be pointed out that Yellowlee's advocacy of infibulation was not limited to the treatment of inmates in lunatic asylums, and was, in fact, directed at parents, whose duty, he declared, was to prevent their children from adopting ‘the secret vice’.
[In Tuke DH ed. A Dictionary of Psychological Medicine. Vol. 2. London: J&A Churchill, 1892: 784 – 6]
1893 Mark J. Lehman claimed Jewish boys were healthier. He noted it was "an open question" whether tuberculosis, cancer, syphilis, and "scrofula" were not "one and the same disease," and whether "such a simple measure as general circumcision" would not be the answer to all "insidious and filthy diseases." He called for immediate universal circumcision of all male infants. [A plea for circumcision. Medical Review.]
1893 An unnamed author for The Journal de Medicine de Paris provided a look into popular thought of the day on female circumcision (meaning only non-excisive incision here) writing:
"A certain Dr. Morris, of Boston, the land of Yankee notions, has discovered an ingenious method of making the most waspish and shrewish women models of gentleness and modesty. He proves by statistics that eighty out of one hundred American women of Aryan origin in New England have the gland of the clitoris adherent, in part or totality, to the prepuce. The result of these adherences is an imperfect development of the gland, and to this is due a weakness of sexual desire and various nervous perturbations. These troubles are dependent, in the first place, on an irritation of the terminal branches of the erectile nerves of the gland brought on by the adherences, and in the second place to irritation caused by the retention of smegma. This double irritation leads to masturbation, to the perversion of sexual desire, and finally to reflex neuroses.The preputial adherences of the clitoris are, according to Dr. Morris, the only and direct cause of the reflex neuroses from which thousands of New England women suffer, and he adds: "We can now understand how the most irritable young girl, the one who is most disagreeable and hysterical, may be made gentle, charming, and become endowed with a thousand feminine graces, by the simple rupture of the bands that bind down the clitoris [clitoral incision]." The therapeutic deduction is perfect, and we do not doubt that all husbands in New England who have shrewish wives will now employ Dr. Morris to break up these adhesions of the clitoris, and bring peace to many a suffering Boston household."
[Adherent Clitoris in all Shrewish Women. Cincinnati Lancet-Clinic. Translated from J Med Paris.]
1894 Peter C. Remondino claimed circumcision would curb the "predisposition" of black men to rape white women. Remondino's proposal was supported by several medical journals including the Maryland Medical Journal and the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (now the New England Journal of Medicine).
"From our observations and experience in such cases, we feel fully warranted in suggesting the wholesale circumcision of the Negro race as an efficient remedy in preventing the predisposition to discriminate raping so inherent in that race. We have seen this act as a valuable preventive measure in cases where an inordinate and unreasoning as well as morbid carnal desire threatened physical shipwreck; if in such cases the morbid appetite has been removed or at least brought within manageable and natural bounds, we cannot see why it should not—at least in a certain beneficial degree—also affect the moral stamina of a race proverbial for the leathery consistency, inordinate redundancy, generous sebaceousness and general mental suggestiveness and hypnotizing influence of an unnecessary and rape, murder and lynching breeding prepuce."
[Negro rapes and their social problems. National Popular Review vol. 4 p. 3.]
1894 Darby (2005) wrote: “eleven boys confined in a Kansas mental institute were castrated for persistent masturbation.” When the press was critical of this, "the Kansas Medical Journal defended the institute's action” writing “this abuse weakened the already imbecile mind and destroyed the body” (Darby, 2005).
1895 Charles E. Fisher, a homeopathic doctor, wrote:
"In all cases in which male children are suffering nerve tension, confirmed derangement of the digestive organs, restlessness, irritability, and other disturbances of the nervous system, even to chorea, convulsions, and paralysis, or where through nerve waste the nutritive facilities of the general system are below par and structural diseases are occurring circumcision should be considered as among the lines of treatment to be pursued."
A like rule obtains with reference to female children. In general practice the sexual organs in both sexes should be carefully examined by the general practitioner in early infancy, and at various times throughout child-life, with reference to the correction of deformity or unnatural conditions that may be present. ...the clitoris is often firmly bound down by an adherent hood; numerous reflexes arising therefrom. It has become quite the rule the examine the sexual organs of male children at or soon after birth, but, on the other hand, it is equally the rule to neglect to examine girl babies. As children of the weaker sex grow their more delicate nervous systems begin to show the effect of genital irritations, and many a case of chorea, confirmed headache, nervous jactitations, paralytic weakness, unusual irritability, melancholia or other abnormal state of the nervous system long remains uncured because of the failure to make careful examination of the condition of the genitalia and relieve irritations and adhesions at this site."
[A Hand-Book On The Diseases of Children And Their Homeopathic Treatment. Chicago: Medical Century Co. 1895]
1895 Edgar J. Spratling began his article explaining that part of the great evil of masturbation was that it might lead to being sodomized in an insane asylum. He advocated tight circumcisions to prevent the skin from being able to move, a natural feature of the human penis which facilitates masturbation. If not tight circumcision, cutting the nerves to the penis could also be used to blunt the individual's sexuality, and he advocated that surgery as well, but it was a more delicate surgery compared to circumcision.
"In women the road to its cure is an endless and monotonous journey, for nothing short of ovariotomy will be found to deserve even the term palliative; clitoridectomy, anatomically and physiologically, could be but a failure, blistering [i.e., cauterization is] only [a] cruelty. Among men the case is not so hopeless, for there anatomy is partly in the operator's favor [meaning male erogenous sensitivity is easier to destroy]. Of the treatments we might speak of blistering the glans penis, but only to condemn it as an uncalled for cruelty; the possible beneficial effect is so transient, while the untoward effect is often so lasting upon the patient mentally in the way of a feeling of resentment, that it is doubtful if one could ever justify such a proceeding. Complete section of the dorsal nerves of the penis (as I have previously advocated) is a rational procedure, but rather too radical for constant routine practice. The cases require the greatest care in the selection for this operation, and even then with all due care one will generally have to encounter the most strenuous objections and later the bitterest reproach and condemnation from the patients and from their relatives—though the object sought may have been obtained [at the expense of causing penile numbness and impotence]. [In cases of masturbation] circumcision is undoubtedly the physicians' closest friend and ally.
"To obtain the best results one must cut away enough skin and mucous membrane to rather put it on the stretch when erections come later. There must be no play in the skin after the wound has thoroughly healed, but it must fit tightly over the penis, for should there be any play the patient will be found to readily resume his practice not begrudging the time and extra energy required to produce the orgasm. It is true, however, that the longer it takes to have an orgasm, the less frequently it will be attempted, consequently the greater the benefit gained.
"The younger the patient operated upon the more pronounced the benefit, though occasionally we find patients who were circumcised before puberty that require a resection of the skin, as it has grown loose and pliant after that epoch."
[Masturbation in the Adult. Med Rec.]
1895 T. Ritchie Stone strongly advocated circumcision for all male infants in his pro-surgery review. [Circumcision. Maryland Med J.]
1896 An editorial in a scientific journal lists reasons for circumcision as everything from bed wetting to elephantitis.
"Local indications for circumcision: Hygienic, phimosis, paraphimosis, redundancy (where the prepuce more than covers the glans), adhesions, papillomata, ecaema (acute and chronic), oedema, chancre, chancroid, cicatrices, inflammatory thickening, elephantitis, naevus, epithelioma, gangrene, tuberculosis, prepupital calculi, hip-joint disease, hernia. Systematic indication: Onanism [masturbation], seminal emissions, enuresis [bed wetting], dysuria, retention, general nervousness, impotence, convulsions, hystero-epilepsy."
[Medical Record, Circumscisus, Medical Record, vol. 49 (1896): p.430.]
1897 S. G. A. Brown of Pennsylvania repeated the same Semitophillic sentiment as Remondino:
"The Jews, who perform this operation on the eighth day after birth, are, from actual observations, known to be exempt from many diseases which afflict other races. Their children are hardy, and grow up to manhood and womanhood strangers to disease, perfect in body, sound in mind, and with a morality above condemnation. It is rare that they figure in silly crimes, police or divorce courts. That an appendage like the prepuce which under various conditions, as phimosis, short frenum or preputial adhesions, is the leading factor in the production of enuresis, dysuria, impotence, calculi, cancer, syphilis, phthisis or various other reflex neuroses, can be considered as a natural physiological appendage, is absurd in the extreme. In order to render the rising generation healthy, mentally morally and physically, we must pay attention to this redundant tissue, and advise its early removal. Fully three-fourths of all male babies have abnormal prepuces."
[A Plea for Circumcision. J Orificial Surgery quoted in The Medical World]
1898 T. Scott McFarland of Missouri reported on the circumcision of a two-year-old girl with precocious puberty and anomalous symptoms of irritation. In closing he added that he had "circumcised as many girls as boys, and always with happy results." Note that circumcision meant prepucectomy for either sex until the 1980s. The more severe form of genital cutting more familiar to people today as female circumcision/FGM meaning clitoridectomy was then called "[clitoral] excision" or the oddly overgeneralized, "operative procedure". [Circumcision of girls. J Orificial Surgery.]
1898 Edwin H. Pratt wrote:
"The condition of the foreskin of boys has received more or less attention, at least since the days of Moses, who is reported to have inaugurated the practice of circumcision of the male portion of the human race. But the girls have been neglected. Without presuming to pose as their Moses, I do feel an irresistible impulse to cry out against the shameful neglect of the clitoris and its hood, because of the vast amount of sickness and suffering, which could be saved the gentler sex, if this important subject received proper attention and appreciation at the hands of the medical profession.
All up-to-date doctors realize the importance of the proper condition of the foreskin in the male and of securing it during infancy. The foreskin must be completely loosened, if it is too long amputated and if it is too tight slit open, in order to avoid the dangers of infantile convulsions, of hip-joint disease, of kidney disease, of paralysis, of eczema universalis, of stammering, of dyspepsia, of pulmonary tuberculosis, of constipation, of locomotor ataxia, of rheumatism, of idiocy and insanity, and of lust and all its consequences. But the poor girls, who have an organ called the clitoris, anatomically corresponding to the penis of the male, with a hood corresponding to the foreskin of the male and just as sorely in need of [surgical] attention, and just as prolific of mischief when neglected as the corresponding parts of the male, have been permitted to suffer on in silence. The same list of diseases which have their start in nerve waste caused by a faulty foreskin in the male is duplicated by the female sex from identically the same cause, in addition to other troubles peculiar to the female organization from which, of course, the male are exempt, and yet it goes on almost entirely unrecognized. Chorea, so frequent in young girls, chlorosis, which comes a little later on, and hysteria, which is also a common affliction, in addition to the same diseases from which boys whose foreskin have been neglected are liable to suffer, have their organ almost invariably in faulty conditions of the hood of the clitoris. It is such a simple matter to secure a normal condition of the hood and its clitoris, and its neglect is fraught with so much and such serious mischief to the gentler sex, that the sin of omission which is being constantly and everywhere committed is painful to contemplate. Doctors are not easily educated out of their beaten tracks.
So let both sexes have a start in life and be entirely freed from the sexual self consciousness which inevitably comes from impinged nerve fibres about the clitoris and its hood as well as at the glans penis and its foreskin. ... A vigorous sympathetic nervous system means health and long life. What surgical interest have we in this fact? It can be told in just one sentence. The weakness and the power of the sympathetic nerve lies at the orifices of the body. Surgery must keep these orifices properly smoothed and dilated."
[Circumcision of Girls. J Orificial Surgery.]
Women suffering from \"hysteria\"
1898 N. Bergman wrote of "punishing" a chronic masturbator with circumcision:
"Clarence B. was addicted to the secret vise practiced among boys. I performed an orificial operation, consisting of circumcision... He needed the rightful punishment of cutting pains after his illicit pleasures."
[Report of a Few Cases of Circumcision. Journal of Orificial Surgery, vol. 7 (1898): pp.249-251.]
1898 Emmet L. Holt advocated for circumcision under the following reasoning:
"Circumcision should be done if phimosis exists, and even where it is not, the moral effect of the operation is sometimes of very great benefit."
[The Diseases Of Infancy And Childhood. New York: D. Appleton. 1897:696-698.]
1899 Denslow Lewis, a Chicago gynecologist, presented evidence for the benefits of female circumcision (prepucectomy) at a meeting of the AMA in 1899. In “a large percentage” of women who failed to find marital passion “there is a preputial adhesion, and a judicious circumcision, together with consistent advice, will often be successful.” He treated 38 women with circumcision reporting “reasonably satisfactory results in each instance.” [The Gynecologic consideration of the sexual act]

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2020.08.27 09:39 HauntedSpy SKs you never might've heard of: The USA

Greetings. For a long while now, I've been compiling and continue to compile a long list of SKs (convicted and suspected) across the world, which have yet to receive an article on Wikipedia. I haven't run a countdown, but I do believe it might count in the triple digits by now. Anyway, today I decided to share one individual SK for each US state and territory, with a little information and a linked article/source to their crimes. I hope you find this information as fascinating as I do. Let us begin. ALABAMA: Curtis Grantham (1988; 3 victims) Murdered two women in Phenix City, burying them in a wooded area in Seale. Later confessed to the October murder of 32-year-old Dawn Ball, previously thought to be a victim of Christopher Wilder. Sentenced to life imprisonment. ALASKA: Gary Zieger (1971-1973; 6+ victims) Doubling as a member of a motorcycle gang who was paid to kill people, Zieger is also thought to be responsible for murdering at least three female hitchhikers around Anchorage. The true extents of his crimes remains unclear, and he himself was murdered along the Seward Highway in 1973. AMERICAN SAMOA: None to my knowledge ARIZONA: Michael Carlson (2003-2009; 3-9 victims) Shot dead his sister in Tucson in 2003, and later murdered a couple in Marana. Confessed to 9 murders in total, but his other victims, if there are any, haven't been found. Sentenced to death. ARKANSAS: Randy Gay (1978-2011; 3 victims) Murdered his father-in-law in 1978, served time and released. Murdered his father in 1991, released again. And finally, murdered a woman and dumped her body at Ouachita National Forest in 2011. Sentenced to death. CALIFORNIA: Pittsburg serial killer (1998-1999; 4 victims) Within a two-month period, four young women were killed in this little, tightly-knit community. It is believed that it's a work of a serial offender, and the Pittsburg police are searching for clues to catch him. Unidentified. COLORADO: Ronald Lee White (1987-1988; 3-16 victims) Murdered roommate and two other men in disputes/robberies, mostly surrounding Pueblo. Later confessed that he has killed 16 victims in total. Authorities believe that at least four cold cases around the state could be tied to him. Sentenced to life imprisonment. CONNECTICUT: Zackery Cody Franklin (2007-2011; 4 victims) Murdered four men around New Haven for mostly robbery purposes. Originally convicted for two homicides, later connected to the other two. Sentenced to life imprisonment. D.C.: Greg Brice (1994-1996; 4 victims) Shot two men in two separate instances for personal disputes. Escaped confinement in December 1995, and a few months later, murdered two men. Recaptured, and sentenced to long imprisonment terms. DELAWARE: James Gordy (unknown-1897; 1-4 victims) Battered his wife to death with an oar in 1897; suspected in the suspicious deaths of his father, ex-wife and their child. Executed in Georgetown in 1897. FLORIDA: Leon Holston (1964-1966; 4 victims) Murdered four young boys in Pompano Beach, while he himself was still a teenager. Sentenced to death, commuted to life imprisonment. GEORGIA: John Robinson (unknown-1901; 1-6 victims) Known as "The Colored Ripper", he was executed for the strangulation murder of a young black woman in Laurens County, whose body he viciously mutilated after. Five other similar murders were suspected to be his doing, but never proven. Executed in Dublin in 1902. GUAM: None to my knowledge HAWAII: Robert Mark Edwards (1986-1994; 2+ victims) Convicted of raping, robbing and murdering two female realtors, one in Los Alamitos, CA, and the other in Kihei, HI. The gap between his crimes, and their severity, leads me to believe he might have other victims, likely in California. Sentenced to death in California and life imprisonment in Hawaii. IDAHO: Gerald Pizzuto (1985; 4 victims) Murdered a woman and a man in Seattle, WA during robberies. Later moved to Boise, ID, where he murdered a couple in a remote cabin. Sentenced to death in Idaho. ILLINOIS: Michael A. Johnson, Jr. (2008-2010; 4 victims) Rapist who abused and murderd young women in Chicago. It's peculiar to note that he strangled them with a deformed right hand, which was missing three fingers. Sentenced to life imprisonment. INDIANA: Anna Cunningham (1918-1922; 5 victims) Poisoned her family members with arsenic in Gary. Sentenced to life imprisonment for one murder, but later paroled for unspecified reasons. Died a free woman in 1945. IOWA: Donald Piper (1993-1998; 2-4 victims) Hotel maintenance chief who stabbed and strangled two women in Des Moines, and is suspected of another two similar killings during that time period. Sentenced to life imprisonment. KANSAS: Mary Troy (1909; 3+ victims) Murdered at least three children in Topeka, all of whom were entrusted in her care. Possibly responsible for half a dozen similar deaths. Fate unknown. KENTUCKY: Michael Abner (1983-2010; 3 victims) Following his arrest for the stabbing death of an elderly man in Pulaski County, he confessed to two cold cases involving strangulation of old women, in 1983 and 1988. Sentenced to life imprisonment. LOUISIANA: Edward Augustine (2007-2011; 3 victims) Involved in a fatal car crash while driving a stolen vehicle in New Orleans, charges dismissed. Later, he and another man killed two men in Jefferson Parish. Rearrested and serving a 40-year prison term. MAINE: Constance Fisher (1954-1966; 6 victims) Mentally-ill woman who drowned six children, three each on two separate occassions, in Waterville. Confined to a mental hospital, but managed to escape and later drowned herself in the Kennebec River in 1973. MARYLAND: Patrick McCullough (1980-2001; 3 victims) Deaf man who murdered two employers (1980 and 1982) in Annapolis, and later his girlfriend in Waldorf (2001). After killing her, he shot himself through the head. MASSACHUSETTS: John Monteiro (2007-2010; 3 victims) Rhode Island man who murdered a man in Brockton in July 2007, and later shot a brother and sister to death. Sentenced to life imprisonment. MICHIGAN: Paul Harrington (1975-1999; 5 victims) Former Detroit police officer who shot his ex-wife and two children in 1975; sent to mental institution and released after two years. After living a relatively peaceful life for many years, he was fired from his job and stopped taking his medication, leading to him killing his new wife and son in 1999. Sentenced to life imprisonment. MINNESOTA: David Torgerson (1969-1973; 6+ victims) Murdered two Minneapolis women in 1969 on separate occassions, and later on, his wife, two children and the babysitter in Rochester. Suspected of more murders since the 1950s. Hanged himself before trial for killing his family. MISSISSIPPI: Columbus elderly murderer (1996-1998; 4-5 victims) In two years, five elderly people were murdered in Columbus. Three years ago, DNA evidence snatched a man named David Solomon Murray, from Pine Bluff, AR, as the killer of one of the victims, but we're yet to see if he's responsible for the others. Unresolved case. MISSOURI: John Wesley Robinson (1896-1913; 3 victims) Strangled a woman in St. Louis and later buried her corpse under the floorboards. Arrested, served 11 years and released. In 1913, he murdered his wife (April 11th) and his stepdaughter (May 17th), dismembering each body and burning the remains in the stove or burying them. Executed in Kansas City in 1915. MONTANA: Ah Yung (unknown-1883; 1-17) Chinese immigrant who murdered a paymaster in Missoula. Authorities suspected he killed a total of seventeen people (two white men and fifteen Chinese), but not much information is available about them. Executed in Missoula in 1883. NEBRASKA: Clarence Victor (1964-1988; 3 victims) Mentally-disabled man who murdered an elderly woman in her Omaha home. Had previous convictions for manslaughter and murder, in 1964 and 1976, respectively. Died in prison. NEVADA: Norman Flowers (2005; 3 victims) Las Vegas rapist who killed the daughter of a former girlfriend in March. Two months later, in the span of eight hours, he raped and strangled two women with a telephone cord. Sentenced to life imprisonment. NEW HAMPSHIRE: Craig Conkey (1991-1994; 3 victims) Killed two women in Lexington, MA, in 1992 and 1994. In 2012, admitted to fatally stabbing a New Hampshire university employee in 1991. Sentenced to life imprisonment. NEW JERSEY: Shiquan Bellamy (2010; 5 victims) Between February and April, murdered three men and a couple in Jersey City during robberies and an attempted carjacking. Sentenced to life imprisonment. NEW MEXICO: Clifton Bloomfield (2005-2008; 5 victims) Murdered five people around the state, including a couple. In 2018, he was aided in a prison escape by a guard, but was recaptured. Sentenced to life imprisonment. NEW YORK: Dmitriy Yakovlev (2003-2007; 3 victims) Russian immigrant who, together with his wife, killed three other Russian emigrants in Brooklyn so he could steal their possessions and bank cards, which he later sold off. Sentenced to life imprisonment. NORTH CAROLINA: Herman Allen (1930-1942; 4 victims) First murdered a boarder in his Johnston County home because he believed he was having an affair with his wife. Convicted of manslaughter and released 11 years later, still believing that people were oogling after his wife, he shot to death his wife, brother-in-law and a man he believed to have been courting her. Executed in 1942. NORTH DAKOTA: Floyd Tapson (1987-1996; 0-3+ victims) Suspected, but not convicted, in killing disabled women at group homes, two in MN (Moorhead and Wadena) and one in Grand Forks. Possibly responsible for similar murders in Baltimore, MD. Sentenced to 75 years for kidnapping in Montana. NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS: None to my knowledge OHIO: Oliver Crook Haugh (1890s-1905; 3-5+ victims) Doctor who murdered his parents and brother in Dayton, and was tied to at least two further murders of concubines in Lorraine and Chicago, IL. Many patients of his, spanning across multiple states dating back to 1890s, died in mysterious circumstances as well. He was also a childhood bully to none other than Wilbur Wright, of the Wright Brothers fame. Executed in 1907. OKLAHOMA: Wayne Garrison (1972-1989; 3 victims) Vicious killer of two toddlers (1972 and 1974) and a 13-year-old Tulsa boy in 1989, whose dismembered remains were found in a lake. His 1970s killings were done while he was still a child. Sentenced to death. OREGON: William Perry Jackson (1980s; 5+ victims) Murdered and robbed people around Portland, sometimes with accomplices. Escaped prison with a convicted bank robber, but later recaptured. Suspect in as many as 30 murders in Oregon and Washington State. Sentenced to life imprisonment. PENNSYLVANIA: Jermaine Burgess (2008: 2+ victims) Career criminal who robbed and murdered two elderly women in Ridley Township and Upper Darby (October 27th and November 10th, respectively). Authorities believe he has committed other murders as well. Sentenced to life imprisonment. PUERTO RICO: Ángel Colón Maldonado (1985-1987; 27 victims) Known as "The Angel of the Bachelors", he lured men for sexual favors, and after he was given various luxurious items, he killed his lovers. Fled to the continental states, but was quickly recaptured. Sentenced to life imprisonment. RHODE ISLAND: Jeffrey Mailhot (2003-2004; 3 victims) Known as "The Rhode Island Ripper", he strangled and then dismembered three prostitutes in his hometown of Woonsocket. Sentenced to life imprisonment. SOUTH CAROLINA: Joseph Ernest Atkins (1969-1986; 3 victims) Shot his brother in North Charleston in 1969. Sentenced to life imprisonment, but his father pleaded for his release, and he was paroled in 1980. Six years later, as an act of gratitude, he shot his father and a 13-year-old neighbor on October 27, 1986. Executed in 1999. SOUTH DAKOTA: Rapid City Creek Drownings (1998-2000; 0-11+ victims) Suspicious deaths of homeless men in Rapid City, six of whom were Native Americans. They stopped just as mysteriously as they began, and authorities believe that they were possibly murdered by a serial offender who might've moved away, presumably to Denver, CO. Unsolved. TENNESSEE: Michael Mullins (1999-2012; 3+ victims) Career criminal and serial rapist who beat and strangled elderly women in Memphis. Strong possibility of additional murders and assaults committed by him. Sentenced to life imprisonment. TEXAS: Tommy Lee Stewart (1971-1986; 3 victims) Abducted and killed a woman in Waco in 1971. Released from prison in 1986 and moved to Port Arthur, where he later murdered a mother and child. Sentenced to life imprisonment. U.S. Virgin Islands: St. Croix Voodoo Poisonings (1984-1988; 5 victims) Five people were poisoned in St. Croix with cyanide, in what appears to be ritualistic slayings. Police suspect a conman, posing as an 'obeah man' (a type of shaman), to be behind the murders. Unsolved. UTAH: Thomas Noffsinger (1989-1990; 3 victims) Strangled and raped two women two months apart in Millcreek and Sandy, and later stabbed a Salt Lake City chef to death in 1990. Sentenced to life imprisonment. VERMONT: Gary Lee Schaefer (1979-1983; 3+ victims) Springfield automechanic who raped and strangled three girls in his hometown. At one time suspected to be responsible for other murders, but this hasn't been proven so far. Sentenced to life imprisonment. VIRGINIA: Walter Cotton and Brandt O'Grady (1898-1900; in the dozens, couldn't determine exact number) An unlikely pair considering the time period (black man and Irish immigrant) who robbed and murdered people around the state, mostly around Emporia. Both were lynched at Greensville by an angry mob in 1900. WASHINGTON: Donna Perry (1990; 3 victims) Known as "The .22 Caliber Killer", who killed three prostitutes in Seattle between February and March 1990. Interestingly, Perry is one of the few known transsexual SKs on record, committing the murders when she still identified as a man. Sentenced to life imprisonment. WEST VIRGINIA: Joseph Eisele (1867; 3 victims) German/Swiss immigrant known as 'The Parkersburg Murderer' who murdered three fellow immigrants for robbery purposes across the state between June and December. Interestingly, another self-confessed SK, Thomas D. Carr, admitted to being his accomplice in one murder, but this was unsubstantiated. Executed in Parkersburg in 1868. WISCONSIN: Alvin Taylor (1985-1988; 4 victims) Nightclub singer who murdered three men in Dunn and Eau Claire Counties, as well as one in the state of Minnesota. Sentenced to psychiatric treatment. WYOMING: Rawlins Rodeo Murders (1974; 4 victims) Over the summer, four young girls disappeared from rodeos in the small town of Rawlins. Only one body was found nine years later in Sinclair, while the others remain missing and are presumed dead. Royal Russell Long, a convicted kidnapper additionally suspected of killing two Oklahoma girls in the 1980s, is the prime suspect, although some theorize Ted Bundy might've been involved. Unsolved.
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2020.08.25 01:42 rotocatgo Hot, low-ownership hitters to target for the week ahead

Here’s a quick roundup of low-ownership (25% or less) hitters who have been swinging a hot stick over the last calendar week (dating back to Monday, Aug. 17), along with their Yahoo ownership percentage and other positional eligibility in parentheses.
These aren’t long-term recommendations, just a PSA for redraft deep-leaguers who are needing a short-term boost at a certain position and may require an out-of-the-box solution.
C: Chance Sisco, Orioles (6%) – Hit two homers last week and so far has an average exit velocity that would be tops on his club if he had enough at-bats to qualify. (He’s nearly there.) Pedro Severino left Sunday’s game early (right hip), so Sisco might be in line for more playing time.
1B: Eric Thames, Nationals (OF, 6%) – After a brutal start, is 6-for-18 with a homer in his last five games. Doesn’t start against lefties, but he’ll see three Phillies’ righthanders this week before facing a hemorrhaging rotation at Fenway.
2B: Jonathan Schoop, Tigers (17%) – Three multi-hit games against divisional foes last week with a couple of dingers, including this destruction of a lollipop curveball from Adam Plutko. Facing stingy staffs in Comerica this week, but there are other 2B options here if that gives you pause.
3B: Brad Miller, Cardinals (2B/OF, 13%) – Streaky hitter off to a nice start since returning from the IL. Only starts against righties, and he’ll see gas-can Matt Harvey on Tuesday before facing an all-righthanded, albeit tough, Indians’ rotation.
SS: Luis Garcia, Nationals (2B, 5%) – Playing second base but qualifies at short in Yahoo. Had two 3-hit games and the first homer of his career (which was the first-ever homer hit by a player born in the 2000s). The 20-year-old has an appetizing slate ahead with the Phillies and Red Sox.
OF: Austin Riley, Braves (3B, 14%) – Feasted on Phillies pitchers over the weekend and gets them again this week. He’s a windmill, but the ball goes far when he connects.
OF: Kevin Pillar, Red Sox (16%) – One of Boston’s lone offensive bright spots who’s suddenly walking more in his eighth season. He plays every day and leads off versus lefties, chipping in occasional power and speed.
OF: Brandon Belt, Giants (1B, 4%) – Went 9-for-19 (.474) last week with a homer. Sits versus lefthanders but really stings righties.
Honorable Mentions:
Jose Trevino, Rangers (C, 3%) – Had multiple hits in each of his last four starts with his first homer of the year, a pull-side liner off a misplaced Dinelson Lamet heater. Doesn’t crack the starting lineup above on account of Robinson Chirinos’ expected activation from the IL.
Matt Beaty, Dodgers (1B/3B/OF, 1%) – Been getting more opportunities with Edwin Rios on the IL, but still not playing every day and is likelier to sit versus lefties. Has a short stroke that produces a high rate of contact, and he’s grown more aggressive swinging at the first pitch while chasing less.
submitted by rotocatgo to fantasybaseball [link] [comments]


2020.08.15 22:25 Ikestrman Daily Pick'Em Thread Sunday, 08/16/2020 Game day

Welcome back to another Pick’Em thread!  
This post can be used to discuss your picks for 08/16/2020. If you have any feedback or suggestions on improving the thread further, drop a comment below or message the moderators.  
Don't forget: picks must be submitted during the twelve-hour window before Noon EDT on game day, you can only make one selection per day, and missed days count as losses, so choose wisely and don't delay!  
Games for Sunday, 08/16/2020:  
Matchup and Team Records Probable Pitchers (Season ERA) Estimated Win Probability
Washington Nationals (7-10) @ Baltimore Orioles (11-8) Max Scherzer (2.75)/ TBD 66% / 34%
New York Mets (9-12) @ Philadelphia Phillies (6-9) Rick Porcello (5.68) / Zack Wheeler (2.89) 48% / 52%
Cleveland Indians (11-9) @ Detroit Tigers (9-8) Adam Plutko (2.45) / Michael Fulmer (6.35) 55% / 45%
Atlanta Braves (11-10) @ Miami Marlins (9-4) TBD / Elieser Hernandez (2.79) 57% / 43%
Seattle Mariners (7-14) @ Houston Astros (9-10) Justus Sheffield (5.27) / Lance McCullers Jr. (6.10) 33% / 67%
Kansas City Royals (8-12) @ Minnesota Twins (13-7) Brady Singer (4.50) / Randy Dobnak (0.90) 34% / 66%
St. Louis Cardinals (3-3) @ Chicago White Sox (10-10) Dakota Hudson (8.31) / Dallas Keuchel (3.04) 49% / 51%
Milwaukee Brewers (8-10) @ Chicago Cubs (13-4) Josh Lindblom (5.68) / Jon Lester (1.06) 47% / 53%
Tampa Bay Rays (12-9) @ Toronto Blue Jays (7-9) Yonny Chirinos (1.04) / Matt Shoemaker (4.86) 56% / 44%
Texas Rangers (9-9) @ Colorado Rockies (12-7) Kolby Allard (1.00) / Jon Gray (6.41) 43% / 57%
Oakland Athletics (14-6) @ San Francisco Giants (8-13) Sean Manaea (9.00) / Logan Webb (2.81) 64% / 36%
Los Angeles Dodgers (14-7) @ Los Angeles Angels (7-13) Dustin May (2.75) / Julio Teheran (13.50) 62% / 38%
San Diego Padres (11-10) @ Arizona Diamondbacks (9-11) Garrett Richards (3.74) / Robbie Ray (10.59) 50% / 50%
Boston Red Sox (6-14) @ New York Yankees (13-6) TBD / J.A. Happ (10.29) 42% / 58%
 
  1. All columns are Away / Home. Records are current as-of the time of posting, and do not contain the current day’s matchup results.
  2. A bolded matchup means that there is a chance of Precipitation greater than 35% in a non-domed stadium at the time of this post.
  3. An italicized matchup means that it is Game 2 of a doubleheader, which for Pick'Em purposes will not be applicable (only Game 1 is counted, but Game 2 is still included above so that you can be aware that Game 1 will be 7 innings, and that pitching management may be different than a non-doubleheader game day).
  4. Probable pitchers, stats, and weather data sourced from mlb.com (via the MLB-StatsAPI and Swish Analytics).
  5. Estimated chance of winning percentages sourced from FiveThirtyEight’s 2020 MLB Game Predictions.
 
Our thoughts go out to all individuals affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and we hope for full recoveries for the players and staff infected. We will try to include updates as information is made known; however, there is obviously a great deal of uncertainty, so details such as probable pitchers, winning odds, and match certainty are (even more than usual) subject to change. Note that cancelled games (weather or other reasons) are automatically counted as correct guesses, but not all games have been included as available selections (due to cancellations and late-rescheduling).
submitted by Ikestrman to MLB_9Innings [link] [comments]


2020.08.15 11:09 indianskier Indian male thinking about re-joining bumble - wasting my time?

mid-30s, in the Boston area. So dating around here is already a next level struggle.
Add in the fact that I’m sub 6 feet and have an Indian hard to pronounce first name and my stock value plummets.
Yes, I know Indian men have an albatross around them in dating circles for multiple reasons #bobsandvagne; but I was adopted prior to birth, so save for my name and skin color, I culturally identify as a white boy. Of course, where the first impression is picture driven, none of that matters.
I’ve been on and off bumble, tinder, etc and usually give up after a month or two since the only matches i seem to get are fake profiles and bots. Yes I paid the premium fee so I could see who was swiping me in advance. IIRC the last time I was on bumble for a longish spell, about a year ago, I got maybe 5 right swipes.
Of course the bumble algorithm punishes my perceived lack of attraction by shoving my profile to the bottom of the stack, and in a place as savvy, young and sophisticated as Boston that means my card probably doesn’t turn up for most.
I guess how to write up a profile that doesn’t pander, but also makes it clear I’m not anything like the stereotypes.
submitted by indianskier to Bumble [link] [comments]


2020.08.14 21:32 faraft Daily Pick'Em Thread Saturday, 08/15/2020 Game day

Welcome back to another Pick’Em thread!
 
This post can be used to discuss your picks for 08/15/2020. If you have any feedback or suggestions on improving the thread further, drop a comment below or message the moderators.
 
Don't forget: picks must be submitted during the twelve-hour window before Noon EDT on game day, you can only make one selection per day, and missed days count as losses, so choose wisely and don't delay!
 
Games for Saturday, 08/15/2020:
 
Matchup and Team Records Probable Pitchers (Season ERA) Estimated Win Probability
St. Louis Cardinals (2-3) @ Chicago White Sox (10-9) Adam Wainwright (1.50) / Lucas Giolito (4.37) 47% / 53%
St. Louis Cardinals (2-3) @ Chicago White Sox (10-9) TBD / TBD 51% / 49%
New York Mets (9-11) @ Philadelphia Phillies (5-9) Steven Matz (8.20) / Aaron Nola (2.79) 45% / 55%
Cleveland Indians (10-9) @ Detroit Tigers (9-7) Shane Bieber (1.63) / Spencer Turnbull (2.00) 61% / 39%
Pittsburgh Pirates (4-13) @ Cincinnati Reds (8-11) Steven Brault (5.14) / Trevor Bauer (0.93) 40% / 60%
Atlanta Braves (11-9) @ Miami Marlins (8-4) Max Fried (1.59) / TBD 62% / 38%
Tampa Bay Rays (12-8) @ Toronto Blue Jays (6-9) TBD / Chase Anderson (3.00) 57% / 43%
Oakland Athletics (13-6) @ San Francisco Giants (8-12) Jesus Luzardo (2.60) / Kevin Gausman (4.05) 59% / 41%
Boston Red Sox (6-13) @ New York Yankees (12-6) Nathan Eovaldi (4.09) / James Paxton (7.84) 40% / 60%
Seattle Mariners (7-13) @ Houston Astros (8-10) Nick Margevicius (3.24) / Cristian Javier (4.02) 32% / 68%
Kansas City Royals (8-11) @ Minnesota Twins (12-7) Danny Duffy (5.12) / Jose Berrios (5.31) 37% / 63%
Washington Nationals (6-9) @ Baltimore Orioles (10-7) Patrick Corbin (2.50) / Asher Wojciechowski (3.95) 65% / 35%
San Diego Padres (11-9) @ Arizona Diamondbacks (8-11) TBD / TBD 43% / 57%
Texas Rangers (8-9) @ Colorado Rockies (12-6) Kyle Gibson (4.11) / German Marquez (2.08) 39% / 61%
Milwaukee Brewers (7-10) @ Chicago Cubs (13-3) Adrian Houser (2.65) / Alec Mills (1.38) 48% / 52%
Los Angeles Dodgers (13-7) @ Los Angeles Angels (7-12) Walker Buehler (4.40) / Andrew Heaney (4.26) 64% / 36%
 
  1. All columns are Away / Home. Records are current as-of the time of posting, and do not contain the current day’s matchup results.
  2. A bolded matchup means that there is a chance of Precipitation greater than 35% in a non-domed stadium at the time of this post.
  3. Probable pitchers, stats, and weather data sourced from mlb.com (via the MLB-StatsAPI and Swish Analytics.
  4. Estimated chance of winning percentages sourced from FiveThirtyEight’s 2020 MLB Game Predictions.
 
Our thoughts go out to all individuals affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and we hope for full recoveries for the players and staff infected. We will try to include updates as information is made known; however, there is obviously a great deal of uncertainty, so details such as probable pitchers, winning odds, and match certainty are (even more than usual) subject to change. Note that cancelled games (weather or other reasons) are automatically counted as correct guesses, but not all games have been included as available selections the last couple days (due to cancellations and late-rescheduling).
submitted by faraft to MLB_9Innings [link] [comments]


2020.08.13 21:46 Ikestrman Daily Pick'Em Thread Friday, 08/14/2020 Game day

Welcome back to another Pick’Em thread!  
This post can be used to discuss your picks for 08/14/2020. If you have any feedback or suggestions on improving the thread further, drop a comment below or message the moderators.  
Don't forget: picks must be submitted during the twelve-hour window before Noon EDT on game day, you can only make one selection per day, and missed days count as losses, so choose wisely and don't delay!  
Games for Friday, 08/14/2020:  
Matchup and Team Records Probable Pitchers (Season ERA) Estimated Win Probability
Washington Nationals (6-8) @ Baltimore Orioles (9-7) TBD / TBD 68% / 32%
Baltimore Orioles (7-7) @ Washington Nationals (4-7) Asher Wojciechowski (3.95) / Stephen Strasburg (10.38) 88.8% / 11.2%
Tampa Bay Rays (11-8) @ Toronto Blue Jays (6-9) TBD / Tanner Roark (5.63) 59% / 41%
New York Mets (8-11) @ Philadelphia Phillies (5-8) Jacob deGrom (2.45) / TBD 60% / 40%
Boston Red Sox (6-12) @ New York Yankees (12-6) TBD / Gerrit Cole (3.22) 31% / 69%
Cleveland Indians (10-9) @ Detroit Tigers (9-7) Aaron Civale (2.84) / Ivan Nova (5.74) 60% / 40%
Pittsburgh Pirates (3-13) @ Cincinnati Reds (8-10) Chad Kuhl (2.00) / Sonny Gray (2.25) 40% / 60%
Atlanta Braves (11-9) @ Miami Marlins (8-4) Kyle Wright (6.75) / Pablo Lopez (1.80) 54% / 46%
Kansas City Royals (8-11) @ Minnesota Twins (12-7) Jakob Junis (4.00) / Jake Odorizzi (6.00) 34% / 66%
St. Louis Cardinals (2-3) @ Chicago White Sox (10-9) Adam Wainwright (1.50) / TBD 51% / 49%
Milwaukee Brewers (7-9) @ Chicago Cubs (12-3) Brandon Woodruff (2.53) / Tyler Chatwood (5.40) 55% / 45%
Texas Rangers (8-9) @ Colorado Rockies (12-6) Lance Lynn (1.16) / Ryan Castellani (0.00) 53% / 47%
Seattle Mariners (7-13) @ Houston Astros (8-10) Yusei Kikuchi (5.28) / Framber Valdez (2.04) 34% / 56%
Los Angeles Dodgers (12-7) @ Los Angeles Angels (7-12) Clayton Kershaw (3.60) / Patrick Sandoval (2.70) 63% / 37%
San Diego Padres (11-8) @ Arizona Diamondbacks (8-11) Dinelson Lamet (1.61) / Merrill Kelly (2.29) 49% / 51%
Oakland Athletics (13-6) @ San Francisco Giants (8-12) Frankie Montas (1.57) / Johnny Cueto (5.40) 64% / 36%
 
  1. All columns are Away / Home. Records are current as-of the time of posting, and do not contain the current day’s matchup results.
  2. A bolded matchup means that there is a chance of Precipitation greater than 35% in a non-domed stadium at the time of this post.
  3. An italicized matchup means that it is Game 2 of a doubleheader, which for Pick'Em purposes will not be applicable (only Game 1 is counted, but Game 2 is still included above so that you can be aware that Game 1 will be 7 innings, and that pitching management may be different than a non-doubleheader game day).
  4. Probable pitchers, stats, and weather data sourced from mlb.com (via the MLB-StatsAPI and Swish Analytics).
  5. Estimated chance of winning percentages sourced from FiveThirtyEight’s 2020 MLB Game Predictions.  
Our thoughts go out to all individuals affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and we hope for full recoveries for the players and staff infected. We will try to include updates as information is made known; however, there is obviously a great deal of uncertainty, so details such as probable pitchers, winning odds, and match certainty are (even more than usual) subject to change. Note that cancelled games (weather or other reasons) are automatically counted as correct guesses, but not all games have been included as available selections (due to cancellations and late-rescheduling).
submitted by Ikestrman to MLB_9Innings [link] [comments]


2020.08.11 23:51 Ikestrman Daily Pick'Em Thread Wednesday, 08/12/2020 Game day

Welcome back to another Pick’Em thread!  
This post can be used to discuss your picks for 08/12/2020. If you have any feedback or suggestions on improving the thread further, drop a comment below or message the moderators.  
Don't forget: picks must be submitted during the twelve-hour window before Noon EDT on game day, you can only make one selection per day, and missed days count as losses, so choose wisely and don't delay!  
Games for Wednesday, 08/12/2020:  
Matchup and Team Records Probable Pitchers (Season ERA) Estimated Win Probability
Chicago White Sox (8-9) @ Detroit Tigers (9-5) Dylan Cease (4.05) / Matthew Boyd (9.20) 54% / 46%
Arizona Diamondbacks (7-10) @ Colorado Rockies (11-5) Luke Weaver (12.19) / Antonio Senzatela (2.65) 51% / 49%
Oakland Athletics (12-5) @ Los Angeles Angels (6-11) Chris Bassitt (1.08) / Griffin Canning (3.14) 54% / 46%
Chicago Cubs (10-3) @ Cleveland Indians (10-7) Kyle Hendricks (3.54) / Carlos Carrasco (2.50) 51% / 49%
Miami Marlins (7-3) @ Toronto Blue Jays (5-8) Jordan Yamamoto (9.00) / Nate Pearson (2.70) 48% / 52%
Kansas City Royals (7-10) @ Cincinnati Reds (7-9) Brad Keller (0.00) / Wade Miley (27.00) 47% / 53%
Baltimore Orioles (7-7) @ Philadelphia Phillies (5-6) Wade LeBlanc (6.91) / Zach Eflin (0.00) 38% / 62%
Atlanta Braves (11-7) @ New York Yankees (10-6) TBD / Masahiro Tanaka (1.17) 39% / 61%
Washington Nationals (5-7) @ New York Mets (7-10) Anibal Sanchez (7.84) / TBD 49% / 51%
San Francisco Giants (7-11) @ Houston Astros (7-9) TBD / Zack Greinke (3.00) 31% / 69%
Minnesota Twins (11-6) @ Milwaukee Brewers (6-8) Kenta Maeda (2.65) / Eric Lauer (9.53) 56% / 44%
Tampa Bay Rays (9-8) @ Boston Red Sox (6-10) Blake Snell (3.38) / Zack Godley (3.97) 56% / 44%
Seattle Mariners (7-11) @ Texas Rangers (6-9) Taijuan Walker (5.79) / Jordan Lyles (5.56) 48% / 52%
San Diego Padres (10-7) @ Los Angeles Dodgers (11-6) Zach Davies (2.87) / Julio Urias (2.40) 39% / 61%
 
  1. All columns are Away / Home. Records are current as-of the time of posting, and do not contain the current day’s matchup results.
  2. A bolded matchup means that there is a chance of Precipitation greater than 35% in a non-domed stadium at the time of this post.
  3. An italicized matchup means that it is Game 2 of a doubleheader, which for Pick'Em purposes will not be applicable (only Game 1 is counted, but Game 2 is still included above so that you can be aware that Game 1 will be 7 innings, and that pitching management may be different than a non-doubleheader game day).
  4. Probable pitchers, stats, and weather data sourced from mlb.com (via the MLB-StatsAPI and Swish Analytics.
  5. Estimated chance of winning percentages sourced from FiveThirtyEight’s 2020 MLB Game Predictions.  
Our thoughts go out to all individuals affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and we hope for full recoveries for the players and staff infected. We will try to include updates as information is made known; however, there is obviously a great deal of uncertainty, so details such as probable pitchers, winning odds, and match certainty are (even more than usual) subject to change. Note that cancelled games (weather or other reasons) are automatically counted as correct guesses, but not all games have been included as available selections (due to cancellations and late-rescheduling).
submitted by Ikestrman to MLB_9Innings [link] [comments]


2020.08.11 00:29 faraft Daily Pick'Em Thread Tuesday, 08/11/2020 Game day

Welcome back to another Pick’Em thread!
 
This post can be used to discuss your picks for 08/11/2020. If you have any feedback or suggestions on improving the thread further, drop a comment below or message the moderators.
 
Don't forget: picks must be submitted during the twelve-hour window before Noon EDT on game day, you can only make one selection per day, and missed days count as losses, so choose wisely and don't delay!
 
Games for Tuesday, 08/11/2020:
 
Matchup and Team Records Probable Pitchers (Season ERA) Estimated Win Probability
Miami Marlins (7-3) @ Toronto Blue Jays (5-8) Elieser Hernandez (0.00) / Hyun Jin Ryu (5.14) 44% / 56%
Kansas City Royals (7-10) @ Cincinnati Reds (7-9) Kris Bubic (3.60) / Luis Castillo (4.76) 43% / 57%
Baltimore Orioles (7-7) @ Philadelphia Phillies (4-6) Alex Cobb (2.51) / Zack Wheeler (2.08) 36% / 64%
Atlanta Braves (11-6) @ New York Yankees (10-6) Touki Toussaint (6.08) / Jordan Montgomery (5.59) 45% / 55%
Chicago Cubs (10-3) @ Cleveland Indians (10-7) Jon Lester (0.82) / Adam Plutko (2.57) 52% / 48%
Washington Nationals (4-7) @ New York Mets (7-9) Max Scherzer (3.29) / Rick Porcello (6.92) 56% / 44%
Chicago White Sox (8-8) @ Detroit Tigers (8-5) Gio Gonzalez (7.71) / Tyler Alexander (1.17) 56% / 44%
Tampa Bay Rays (8-8) @ Boston Red Sox (6-9) Andrew Kittredge (2.35) / Martin Perez (3.45) 50% / 50%
Minnesota Twins (10-6) @ Milwaukee Brewers (6-7) Tyler Clippard (1.17)/ Josh Lindblom (4.15) 51% / 49%
Arizona Diamondbacks (6-10) @ Colorado Rockies (11-4) Zac Gallen (2.81) / Kyle Freeland (2.41) 52% / 48%
Seattle Mariners (6-11) @ Texas Rangers (6-8) Marco Gonzales (3.06) / Mike Minor (6.89) 45% / 55%
San Francisco Giants (7-10) @ Houston Astros (6-9) Tyler Anderson (2.19) / Brandon Bielak (0.87) 38% / 62%
Oakland Athletics (12-4) @ Los Angeles Angels (5-11) Mike Fiers (5.63) / Dylan Bundy (2.08) 52% / 48%
San Diego Padres (9-7) @ Los Angeles Dodgers (11-5) Garrett Richards (4.60) / Ross Stripling (4.00) 37% / 63%
 
  1. All columns are Away / Home. Records are current as-of the time of posting, and do not contain the current day’s matchup results.
  2. A bolded matchup means that there is a chance of Precipitation greater than 35% in a non-domed stadium at the time of this post.
  3. Probable pitchers, stats, and weather data sourced from mlb.com (via the MLB-StatsAPI and Swish Analytics.
  4. Estimated chance of winning percentages sourced from FiveThirtyEight’s 2020 MLB Game Predictions.
 
Our thoughts go out to all individuals affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and we hope for full recoveries for the players and staff infected. We will try to include updates as information is made known; however, there is obviously a great deal of uncertainty, so details such as probable pitchers, winning odds, and match certainty are (even more than usual) subject to change. Note that cancelled games (weather or other reasons) are automatically counted as correct guesses, but not all games have been included as available selections the last couple days (due to cancellations and late-rescheduling).
submitted by faraft to MLB_9Innings [link] [comments]


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